Dr Lisa Lobry de Bruyn

Senior Lecturer - School of Environmental and Rural Science

Lisa Lobry de Bruyn

Phone: +61 2 6773 3119

Email: llobryde@une.edu.au

Biography

I have been a member of staff of Ecosystem Management since July 1993 and have been involved in teaching core units of the degree.  Each year I try to develop it further in response to both students' comments and educational theory.  Hence, my teaching has been continually evolving to reach its present state, and I hope it will continue to do so. It may be of interest to know a bit about my background and the experiences that have shaped my views of the world.  So here goes!

I originate from WA, and often my examples of land management reflect that bias.  I completed both undergraduate and postgraduate studies at the University of Western Australia in the Science Faculty, majoring in Physical Geography. I found geography suited my desire to solve applied and relevant environmental problems and opened my eyes to the fact that environmental problems are human problems.  I read quite recently "that the problem is not the problem but our old solution to the problem".  In my Honours year, I became interested in the release of marginal agricultural land for farming, which was topical at the time. I also worked for the following year after graduation compiling coastal management reports for Cervantes and Jurien Bay, north of Perth.

After a year in the public service I realised I wanted to have more autonomy and control over my career, and decided to start postgraduate studies in 1986. I spent the next 4 years working in the central wheatbelt of WA, at CSIRO Wildlife and Ecology's field study area north of Kellerberrin.  My PhD thesis examined the role of ants and termites in soil modification in the naturally vegetated and agricultural habitats of a semi-arid environment. The findings of the thesis have ramifications for soil degradation, reserve management, nutrient cycling, food chains, ecosystem monitoring, soil formation processes, soil classification and soil variability.  The field area also gave me the opportunity to mix with a wide variety of researchers and to talk to farmers about my research, although the intrinsic value of research was not always clear to farmers.

I submitted my PhD in October 1990 and started work in the Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries in Tasmania.  I was employed as a Project Officer for a Dairy Research and Development Corporation project which conducted research into the effects of irrigated dairy farming practices on soil structural properties and earthworm numbers.  I again worked on farmers' properties and found the experience rewarding and insightful. The research has contributed to understanding how soil macrofauna affect soil fertility and pasture production. At present I am involved in several projects which delve further into the role of soil fauna, particularly macrofauna, in maintaining soil health in various agricultural systems in northern NSW as well as capturing farmers' understanding of soil health and the implications for on-farm monitoring. In the future, I see myself continuing to conduct research into soils, utilising a geographer's integrative and multi-disciplinary approach; seeking to improve understanding of the management and formation of soils in Australia; and assisting land users to make decisions that will conserve and wisely manage the soil.

Qualifications

BSc (Hons) (WA), PhD (WA), GCHE (NE)

Teaching Areas

Course Co-ordinator for School of Environmental and Rural Science

From July 9, 2007 I was the only Course Co-ordinator for the School of Environmental and Rural Science, but over my term I devolved the role to others so we now have several people involved in advising students.  I was available to advise students face to face or over the phone on degree programmes as follows, but my term finished at the end of 2010.  Urgent requests can be emailed to ersteach@une.edu.au, and indicated as such, and will be dealt with more promptly, but alternatively ring 6773 3455 and arrange a time to discuss matters further with the current Course Co-ordinator.

BNatRes
BNatRes/BUrbRegPlan
BEnvSc
Env Sci component of BEnvSc/LLB
GradCertNatRes
GradDipNatRes
MEnvMgt
MNatRes
GradCertGISc
GradDipGISc
MGISc
GradCert ESMCC
GradDip ESMCC
M ESMCC

I teach in three core units of the Environmental Science and Management Degrees. The units are – Land Assessment for Sustainable Use (EM 311/511), Impact Assessment in Natural Resource Management (EM312/512), and Sustainable Land Management (RSNR 403/503) – they are 3rd year and 4th year units respectively.  EM312 is also a core unit in the Urban and Regional Planning Degree.  These students comprise the majority of the external class and at most 50% of the internal class.  Many of the external students are working in land management agencies be that local, state or federal government.

Since beginning my teaching career at UNE in 1993 I have learnt to be reflective and critical about my abilities and capacity to be an effective facilitator of student learning.   I certainly did not start out seeing myself as a facilitator of student learning.  I commenced lecturing only three weeks after starting at UNE.  I had never lectured before, and all that I thought was expected of me was to "present the material clearly, and effectively".  I realise now this is only a small part of "good" teaching and effective learning.  Initially, I was uncomfortable with the teaching style that relied on one's ability to "perform" for students (Kember 1998).  I was looking for a teacher-student interaction that suited my personality, and was aligned with my philosophy of democracy, participation and praxis (Freire, 1973).  As Pretty and Chambers (1997) emphasised " learning does not necessarily result from teaching…. But teaching can impede learning."  I am committed to giving students a high quality educational experience that will empower the students to take more control over their learning and imbue them with self-confidence (Thorley & Gregory, 1994).  My overall vision was to see the students flourish and develop into life long learners and communicators. To achieve this vision required an adoption of learning strategies that were student-centred and integrate learning and communication skills into the curriculum.  This has occurred through a series of incremental changes in my approach to teaching and learning that has gone through several cycles of learning over the last four years (Brockbank & McGill, 1998).

I believe my resolve to continually improve and revise my learning approach - both content and process - has been instrumental to my maintenance of an enthusiastic and enjoyable learning environment. For me the most important thing as a teacher is to be open to change and to be flexible. Being open about what you are doing, about how you think it's going to impact on students, and what you hope to achieve, is important for all involved, particularly the students.  This view was supported by Ramsden (1998) who suggested that "inspiring students, explaining one's subject well, clearly specifying standards, and giving useful feedback through assessment are closely related to whether students learn effectively".  University teaching is heading towards increasing the balance between outcomes as embodied in knowledge and the processes of learning, as reflected in UNE's recent adoption of attributes for graduates. These attributes include communication skills, information literacy, life-long learning, global perspective, problem solving, social responsibility and team work. I think over time the two (outcomes and process) will become intertwined rather than being seen, by students and others, as separate entities. I think achieving a balance between emphasising the learning process and the outcomes of learning is a major issue in Teaching and Learning.  I found that when I over-emphasised the importance of the learning process students and other lecturers were critical of that approach. I felt it was necessary to rationalise the active learning strategy I was adopting and to draw out comparisons with the traditional lecturing approach of "chalk and talk' teaching, and exam-based assessment and discuss its deficiencies.

I saw the need to include other strategies and skills development in my teaching.  My teaching and learning approach is to integrate outcomes and processes of learning and encourage students to acknowledge their role in the learning process; not as passive learners, but as active participants in learning (Pretty & Chambers 1997).   My goal is to encourage students to do more than listen: they must read, write, discuss, analyse, synthesise, evaluate, solve problems and work together.  I am also committed to making sure the process works by improving the learning environment and finding the balance between student- and teacher-centred learning. I have relinquished some of my control over students and given it to them, but I have not given up my responsibility to ensure that they have a quality learning experience.

References

Brockbank, A. and McGill, I. 1998. Facilitating Reflective Learning in Higher Education.  Buckingham Open University Press, UK.

Freire, P. 1973. Extension or communicating in Education for critical consciousness. Seaberg Press, NY.

Kember, D., 1998. Teaching beliefs and their impact on students' approach to learning.  Chapter One. p1-25.

Pretty, J. N. and Chambers, R., 1997. Towards a learning paradigm: new professionalism and institutions for a sustainable agriculture. In Beyond Farmer First – rural people's knowledge, agricultural research and extension practice.  Editors I. Scoones and J. Thompson. Intermediate Technology Publications, UK. Pp 182-202.

Ramsden, P. 1998.  Managing the Effective University. Higher Education Research and Development. 17: 347-370.

Thorley, l. and Gregory, R. 1994. Using Group-based Learning in Higher Education, London: Kogan Page

Teaching and Learning Related Publication and Presentations

  1. Daily, H, Scott, J. Hinch, G, Lobry de Bruyn, L. A., and Reid, J. (2001). GrassGro Teaching Portfolio. Pp 1-44. (UNE: Armidale) ISBN: 1 86389 740 2.
  2. Daniels D., Lobry de Bruyn L. A. and Reid N. (1996a). The development and evaluation of an interactive approach in tertiary education. In Directions: Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow.  The 25th Australian Association for Research in Education Conference, Wrest Point Conference, Hobart, 26-30 November 1995.  Electronically published ISSN 1324-9339 http://www.aare.edu.au/95pap/danid95316.txt
  3. Daniels D., Lobry de Bruyn L. A. and Reid N. (1996b).  Developing Professional Skills - A Case Study.  In Chemistry: Expanding the Boundaries.  The 14th International Conference on Chemical Education, University of Queensland, Brisbane, 14-19 July 1996.
  4. Daniels D., Hughes, D, Lobry de Bruyn L. A. Metcalfe, P., and Reid N., (1996).  The development and evaluation of an interactive unit in tertiary science.  Paper presented at Australian Science Education Research Association (ASERA) Conference, July 11- 14 1996, Canberra.
  5. Lobry de Bruyn, L. A. (1996). The Benefits of Implementing Active Learning Strategies. unearth ADU: Armidale. vol2(3): 2.
  6. Lobry de Bruyn, L. A.,  Reid, N., and Daniels, D. (1996).  Reflections on the Application of Action Learning Principles and Innovative Teaching Techniques in Tertiary Education. In the Proceedings of Different Approaches: Theory and Practice in Higher Education. Perth, Western Australia, 8-12 July 1996. pp 445-453. Available online at: http://www.herdsa.org.au/confs/1996/lobrydebruyn.html
  7. Lobry de Bruyn, L. A. (1997). Tracking the Progress of Active Learning Strategies - a Woman's Perspective. In Disciplining Rita  (Ed. J O'Sullivan) pp 11-22 (Women's Studies and the Academic Women's Association, University of New England) ISBN 1 86389 436 5
  8. L. A. Lobry de Bruyn (1998).  Increasing the Balance between Knowledge and Process.  In Skills for the Future: Reflections of UNE Academics  (Ed. R. Muldoon and C. Buckland), pp 29-33 (TLC:UNE) ISBN: 1 86389 5221
  9. L. A. Lobry de Bruyn (2000).  Communication and Information Literacy for Students of Natural Resources.  In Skills for the Future: Case Studies from UNE  (Ed. R. Muldoon), pp 21-23 (TLC:UNE) ISBN: 1 86389 6783.
  10. Lobry de Bruyn, L. A. (2000) Is the tail wagging the dog? Evaluating the alignment of assessment tasks with learning goals and approaches. In TEDI - Effective Teaching and Learning at University, held at Duschesne College, University of Queensland, 9-10 November, 2000. Published on the web at: http://www.tedi.uq.edu.au/conferences/teach_conference00
  11. Lobry de Bruyn, L. A. and Prior, J. C. (2001a). Changing Student Learning Focus in Natural Resource Management Education - Problems (and some Solutions) with using Problem Based Learning. In Flexible Learning for a Flexible Society Proceedings of ASET/HERDSA 2000 Joint International Conference, 2-5th July Toowoomba, L. Richardson and J. Lidstone (Eds) (ASET/HERDSA, Queensland). Pp 441-451. ISBN: 0 908557 47 7
  12. Lobry de Bruyn, L. A. and Prior, J. C. (2001b). Meeting of Minds  Clashing of Cultures: evolution of teaching practice to engage students as co-learners. In Proceedings of the 24th International Conference of HERDSA 2001  Learning Partnerships  Newcastle University, Newcastle 8-11th July, (Eds P Little, J Conway, K Cleary, S Bourke, J Archer, and A. Kingsland. ISBN 0 908557 49 3
  13. Lobry de Bruyn, L. A. (2002).  Using the Team Management Index (TMI) for Creating Balanced Teams.  In SkillCity (Eds Rifkin, W. and Beacham, E.) pp6 Science Communication Program: UNSW. ISBN 0-9750164-0-7
  14. Lobry de Bruyn, L. (2002). Description of Problem Based Learning in Natural Resource Management. Retrieved March 21, 2007, from Learning Designs Web site: http://www.learningdesigns.uow.edu.au/exemplars/info/LD28/index.html
  15. Lobry de Bruyn, L. A. (2003). Online communication in dPBL: can threaded discussion provide social presence and convergence? In 16th ODLAA Conference Sustaining quality learning environments 1-4 October 2003, Canberra. (C McLoughlin, P. Le Cornu, W Jackson Eds) pp 10 (ODLAA: Canberra) ISBN 0-9751326-0-1.
  16. Lobry de Bruyn, L. A. (2004). Problem Solving. In A Graduate Attributes Resource Guide. (Ed. Lynne Chapman), p95-98.  ISBN 1 86389 867 0.
  17. Lobry de Bruyn, L. A. (2004). Monitoring online communication: can the development of convergence and social presence indicate an interactive learning environment? Distance Education 25: 67-81.
  18. Lobry de Bruyn. L. A. (2005).  The use of distributed problem-based learning and threaded discourse in teaching natural sciences at university level: problems and prospects.  In Teaching in Life Sciences: Learner Centred Approaches. Eds C. McLoughlin and A. Taji, Haworth Press: UK. Pp 85-104.
  19. Lobry de Bruyn. L. A. (2008). Adapting problem-based learning to an online learning. In Handbook of Research on Learning Designs and Learning Objects: Issues, Applications and Technologies. Eds: L. Lockyer, S. Bennett, S. Agostinho, and B. Harper,   IGI Publishing: USA. p 676-701.
  20. Lobry de Bruyn, L. A. (2011).  Chapter 7.  Testing strategies to enhance online student collaboration in a problem-based learning activity. In Techniques for Fostering Collaboration in Online Communities: Theoretical and Practical Perspectives, Eds: F. Pozzi, and D. Persico, IGI Publishing: USA. p 99-123.
  21. Lobry de Bruyn, L. A., Prior, J. C., and Reid, N., (2010) Keeping it Real: Valuing oral communication training and learning in the discipline of environmental science. In Rethinking Learning in your Discipline, Proceedings of the University Learning and Teaching Futures Colloquium 2010, Ed R. Muldoon, (UNE: Armidale). Pp 1-15
  22. Reid, N.,  Lobry de Bruyn L. A., Daniels, D., Metcalfe, P., Hughes, D & Prior, J., (1996).  Development of an ALP Package in Sustainable Land Management.  In Action learning Matters: Process and Product. ADU: Armidale.  pp 70-99.

Research Interests

Overview

My research activities (from 1984 to present) have originated from my concern about the degradation of soils - understanding the biophysical processes and determining the types of solutions that need to be applied to preserve the soil resource.  There have been few studies in Australia that have examined the importance of soil biota (ants, termites and earthworms) in restoring the balance between soil degradative effects (accelerated soil erosion, decline in organic matter, changes in soil biodiversity) and restorative effects (alleviation of soil compaction, increase in water infiltration rate, mixing of soil organic matter).  $3.7 billion pa is required to ameliorate present land degradation problems in Australia. The research I have undertaken has been directed to fill this research gap.  Since 1996, I have become more involved in blending the qualitative and quantitative research paradigms, having been influenced by developments in my teaching philosophy, I have adopted a participative, action research model for investigating landholders' understanding of soil health, and the ramifications for monitoring land condition (GRDC UNE41). I foresee opportunities to become involved in evaluating the learning and successes of partnerships between community groups and government to progress policy and legislative initiatives (see Lobry de Bruyn 2001). In the past I have actively pursued further funding for research ideas that have emanated from earlier research programme.

My research is recognised internationally, both through my publications and citation of my papers.  I have also taken part in a volume - On Bioindicators of Agroecological Environments (edited by Professor Maurizio Paoletti - editor of 12 volumes in soil ecology/agroecology and author of over 125 papers) and the only Chapter representing Australian research.  I believe this is in recognition of my research in the area of biopedology, especially the role of ants in maintaining soil health.

Role of Soil Biota in Maintaining Soil Health

My research focuses on the importance of soil biota in maintaining a healthy soil and how soil biota can be used to monitor the health of the soil, and hence its sustainability.  Since arriving at UNE I have acquired several large and small grants to pursue this line of research.

The first research program I undertook at UNE was to examine Soil macrofauna biodiversity in newly cleared land and their role in maintaining soil structure - a pilot study.  This was funded by Small ARC Grant over three years ($ 34 000).  I have undertaken pre and post clearing invertebrate sampling, and will be taking measurements of ant nest morphology and bioturbation as well as the influence of ant nests on water infiltration.  This is a unique study in that I am able to measure and observe the direct consequences of clearing on epigeic invertebrates and determine which invertebrates will be lost or survive as a result of clearing.  This project also allows me to determine the importance of soil macrofauna in soil processes such as soil structure maintenance, soil turnover (bioturbation) and water infiltration.  I have presented preliminary results at two conferences.

I have also conducted research into the soil biodiversity of cotton fields under various soil management and rotation regimes which was funded through the Cotton Research Development Corporation ($ 6 000 over 2 years).  This collaborative research with Dr Nilantha Hulugalle has led to a joint publication being submitted to an international journal - Applied Soil Ecology, and my results have been presented at several conferences over the last two years.

In more recent research projects I have broadened my research horizons, while still maintaining a keen interest in soil biota.  The type of funding I have actively sought is also of the magnitude to support a research fellow and assist postgraduate students with their research costs.  My aim is to develop a research team which has a geographical focus in the New England Region and can sustain several research projects which are complementary to each other, and cover a diverse range of disciplines.

The first of these projects is titled Optimising Revegetation Strategies for the Sustainability of the Soil Resource and is funded by Environmental Trust NSW ($ 178 000 over 3 years).

In this research I have examined how successful the revegetation programs in the Northern Tablelands of NSW have been in restoring the resilience of the soil.  The main objective was to examine experimentally the benefits to the soil resource of replanting local native trees and shrubs in linear blocks (5-7 yrs old) within and beyond the revegetated area.  This project sought to establish the time frame and desirable revegetation design options for farmers by studying integrative measures of soil quality (soil biota/soil properties/plants).  By examining revegetated areas in such a manner I would be able to suggest guidelines for establishing a set of indicators for farmers to measure/monitor the benefits of various revegetation strategies.

Outcomes of Research

Revegetation Design Options
The research would lead to the identification of a revegetation strategy which will ensure the more sustainable use of grazing land in the Northern Tablelands of NSW.  In conjunction with stakeholders (graziers, Landcare members, Government Agencies, NGOs and students) a monitoring/appraisal scheme for measuring the benefits of revegetation programs on the sustainability of the soil resource will be developed and tested.

Tree planting extension
A key element to successful tree planting extension is to improve the understanding of how soils function and to emphasise their slow rate of formation (soil is a non-renewable resource) to stakeholders.  Hence a more informed understanding of the role of soil biota in soil ecosystem processes, which can be translated to end-users (graziers, Landcare co-ordinators, government agencies, NGOs and students) in various mediums, is seen as an important outcome of this research.

Sustainability Indicators
Also arising from the research would be the techniques/tools for farmers to assess other facets of their agricultural systems.  A Land and Water Resources Research and Development Corporation (LWRRDC) consultancy report (ACIL Economics and Policy Pty Ltd et al., 1994) stated that important priorities were the 'development of simple tests for soil structural condition and reliable but simple tests to indicate fertility and biological diversity of soil organisms and on-farm ecosystems '.  Furthermore the 'role of biological diversity in the resistance and resilience of the resource base under pressure is also poorly understood and, consequently, widely under emphasised '.

I hope to provide for/address both in the above research program as well as in another funded project from Grains Research and Development Corporation to examine Wheatbelt farmers' perceptions of soil health in NSW ($ 135 000 over 3 yrs).

There are five important reasons for conducting this research into soil health and farmers' understanding of what soil health is and how to measure it.

Firstly, recent government reports (Hamblin 1992, SCARM 1993) have identified various soil indicators for monitoring soil sustainability at the farm level, but at this stage there has been no rigorous experimentation to test their validity in Australian agroecosystems.

Secondly, farmers need indicators of soil quality which they can easily and reliably use to monitor their soil sustainability.  Farmers are also unlikely to adopt the soil sustainability indicators derived by scientists, if they require too much technical expertise, are expensive and timely to conduct and the results are difficult to interpret (Baker and Dalby 1994).

Thirdly, farmers have been slow to adopt sustainable management practices because they can not see the benefits of the new techniques and perceive a higher risk and uncertainty with them (Vanclay 1992).

Fourthly, there is a strong desire by farmers to monitor their farm goals and determine if changes in farm management are leading towards a more sustainable farming system.  A simple monitoring tool which illustrates trends in soil quality may act as a persuader to change or affirm management practices.

Lastly, awareness of land degradation is an important first step down the road of recovery, but if that recognition comes too late or not at all the end result is costly and in some cases irretrievable.  Therefore it is important to assess the accuracy of farmers' perceptions on soil quality as well as the impact of Landcare and farmer groups, on their perceptions.

This particular project has formulated a process for farmers to identify and measure soil health based on their own understanding and words. The blending of qualitative and quantitative research paradigms used in this research was imperative if one is to create an environment for participants' learning and action, and to remove the impediments to communication between participants and researcher.  The adoption of such a research paradigm builds trust and relevance in the research project and the outcomes of the project. Ultimately the research process empowered farmers to become involved in the development of a soil health checklist that they can use and reflects their understanding of soil health.   Another aim of this project was to produce (through several reiterations) a working prototype of a soil health checklist which is commensurate with farmer's knowledge system and actions regarding soil health.  The product serves several functions for farmers as a tool, technique and/or information package on soil health.  Most importantly it places the emphasis on farmers to optimise the information they already have on soil such as soil testing, as well as paddock history and other visual appraisal techniques to record soil health status of paddocks over time (as outlined in Lobry de Bruyn and Abbey 2001).

Outcomes of Wheatbelt Farmers' Awareness of Soil Health and the Implications for Monitoring Sustainability

This work has generated a range of research outputs from mainstream articles to papers in internationally recognised journals.  So far the research has produced 2 book chapters, 2 journal articles, 3 articles (aclep, GroundCover, Kondinin Farm Group), and 6 conference papers.  This work was also showcased at GRDC's "Sharing the Knowledge" expos in 1998 (Gunnedah and Gilgandra) and 1999 (Tamworth).

Monitoring Natural Resource Condition and Management in Agriculture

In Managing Natural Resources in Rural Australia for a Sustainable Future (AFFA 1999), and again in Co-ordinating Catchment Management (CoA, 2001) the proposed target for landholders in rural areas was to have 75% increase in the number of people actively monitoring resource condition – soil, water and biodiversity- to guide their management practices by 2005.  A soil health checklist provides a qualitative appraisal of soil health that is commensurate with farmers' knowledge system, everyday language, and actions.  Such a soil health checklist could be multi-purposed and marketed as a tool to assist farmers in interpreting and interrogating soils advice, either with or without outside assistance by a service provider. Since at least 25% of farmers are already soil testing in any one year (Lobry de Bruyn and Andrews 2016), the motivation now is to extend the information they already have on their soil to other uses. The use of a soil health checklist could have several outcomes that include:

  • Empowering farmers to be more self reliant in terms of identifying their land management needs and problems by identifying the early warning signs of soil productivity decline, and probable causes,
  • Improve the effectiveness and usefulness of soil testing results for land management that, at the moment, are probably used by only 20% of farmers (Price, G. pers. com, INCITEC, Training Division, Federal President of Australian Soil Science Society Inc., "80% of our business is with 20% of farmers"),
  • Farmers taking the initiative on how, when and where to conduct soil testing, thereby reducing outlays (22% of farm on-costs are for chemicals and fertiliser), multiplying the benefits, and applying a more judicious and timely strategy to soil testing, and finally
  • Providing soil scientists, policy makers and technical advisers with a common language for communicating more effectively with farmers about their soil tests and vice versa.

The Influence of Gender in NRM Committee Effectiveness

I recently wrote an article (Lobry de Bruyn 2001) on community participation in natural resource management decision-making and realised that the role of gender was not widely considered or researched. I feel that this area requires more investigation as was further substantiated by working on the LWA research proposal.  Women's contribution to agriculture and natural resource management has been stated by the Chair of SCARM, Michael Taylor (2001) as "the major drivers of change", and that women and men have a shared responsibility to set future directions to achieve improved outcomes for rural industries and communities (Principle of National Plan, 1998), yet improving representation of women in decision-making positions has been slow, and in some areas female representation has gone backwards. Even though there are State, Territory and Commonwealth programs in place to: increase women's influence at the decision making level; improve communication networks; raise the visibility of women in agriculture; improve women's leadership skills and capacity building; and value women's contribution, the data from SCARM confirms that most female representation is advisory in nature and not making decisions on boards or committees.  For example, 53% of Landcare Coordinators are women in contrast to 12.5% of SCARM chairs.

The policy community have identified the need to include women in NRM decision making and planning.  Yet few women influence decision-making and policy development in industry, agribusiness or government (despite the best efforts of the National Action Plan, 1998) even though women comprise 51% of the population, and in agricultural industries 32% of the paid workforce, with 70 000 women defining themselves as farmers or farm managers (1996 ABS).  NRM policy or planning decisions are not including the diversity of women's perspectives, skills and knowledge.  Women's views (34% of the responses) to Managing Natural Resources in Rural Australia for a Sustainable Future were considered to be more holistic, have a long term focus, flexible, and focused on local needs.

So far research data has not revealed the influence of gender equity on organisational effectiveness, and there have not been many advances in answering the following question.  What are the consequences of gender-related values to committee effectiveness or is achieving a gender balance at the decision making level merely a matter of equity?

Current and Recent Research Projects

Research Funding

1990-1993
Dairy Research and Development Corporation (DRDC) support research into the effects of irrigated dairy pastures on soil structure and earthworm numbers
($ 210 000)

1993-1996
Small ARC Grant for - Soil macrofauna biodiversity in newly cleared land and their role in maintaining soil structure - a pilot study
($ 34 000)

1994-1996
CRDC /NSW Agriculture Collaboration - A survey of soil biota in wheat - cotton crop rotations
($ 6 000)

1994/5
Balalla-Brushgrove Landcare Group - interactions between earthworms and cell grazing in maintaining sustainable pastures
($ 4 000)

1996–1999
Environmental Trust Grant  - Optimising Revegetation Strategies for the Sustainability of the Soil Resource"
($178 000)

1997-2000
Grains Research and Development Corporation - Wheatbelt Farmers' Perceptions of Soil Health
($135,000)

1999-2001
Small ARC and UR Grant - The search for sensitive indicators of soil health: how do soil macrofauna perform?
($ 31,000)

2002-2005
Discovery Project (ARC) - Institutional transitions to sustainable agriculture: An inter-disciplinary analysis of a novel common-property resource governance system.
($202,225)

2008-2009
Evaluation of Property Management Planning for the Border Rivers Gwydir CMA.
($30,000)

2010
Evaluation of Behaviour Change resulting from Education and Extension Programs for the Border Rivers Gwydir CMA.
($29,850)

2010-2013
Grain and Graze 2: Northern Region ($517 000, UNE; Total 2.2 Million)

2013
Exploring new technologies to quantify soil macrofauna influences on soil functionality ($14 693)

2015                       2015
Evaluation of the Collaborative Delivery model between the Landcare Networks and Northern Tablelands Local Land Services ($ 77 981)

Research Consultancies

1994
National Parks and Wildlife Service of NSW.  To monitor and survey the terrestrial invertebrates of lakebed cropping systems north of Walgett, NSW ($13 000).

2000
MLA (Meat and Livestock Australia). Analysis of Issues and Directions for Sustainable Grazing Systems Program – Raised by Producers and Researchers for Sustainable Grazing Management. ($2 750).

Publications

THESES

Lobry de Bruyn L. A. (1984).  Effects of  Farming on "Wodjil" Soils, East of Hyden. Honours thesis, Department of Geography, the University of Western Australia.

Lobry de Bruyn L. A. (1990).  The Role of Ants and Termites in Modifying Soil Properties in Naturally Vegetated and Agricultural Environments.  PhD thesis, Department of Geography, University of Western Australia.

BOOK CHAPTERS

Hobbs, R. J., Saunders, D. A., Lobry de Bruyn, L. A., Main, A. R. (1993).  Chapter Four - Changes in Biota.  In. 'Reintegrating Fragmented Landscapes: towards sustainable production and nature conservation'.  pp 65-107 (Eds Hobbs, R. J. and Saunders, D. A.) Springer-Verlag, New York.

Lobry de Bruyn, L. A. and Mele, P  (1996) Introduced Earthworms: Life Cycle and Biology in Australian Conditions.  In The Role of Earthworms in Agriculture and Land Management - Report of National Workshop, 20-22 June 1993 Launceston, Tasmania, eds. M Temple-Smith and T. Pinkard, DPIF, Tasmania, 48 – 57.

Lobry de Bruyn, L. A. (1997). Tracking the Progress of Active Learning Strategies - a Woman's
Perspective. In  Disciplining Rita (Ed. J O'Sullivan) pp 11-22 (Women's Studies and the Academic Women's Association, University of New England) ISBN 1 86389 436 5

Lobry de Bruyn, L. A. (1997).  Land Resource Assessment Tertiary Training at the University of New England. aclep newsletter 6/3: 7-9.

Lobry de Bruyn, L. A. (1999). How do farmers measure and monitor soil fertility? aclep newsletter 8: 6-11.

Lobry de Bruyn, L. A. (2000). "Capturing community understanding of NRM". In  A Manual of Tools for Participatory R&D in Dryland Cropping Areas. R. J. Petheram (Ed). Publication 00/132. RIRDC, Canberra. Pp 61-64.

Lobry de Bruyn, L. A. (2001) Book Review of "Invertebrates as Webmasters in Ecosystems" Edited by D C Coleman and P F Hendrix, CABI Publishing, CAB International. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 84: 94-96

Lobry de Bruyn, L. A. (2001). Part Three: Society and Land Degradation: Chapter 12: Establishing Farmers' Understanding of Soil Health for the Future Development of 'User-Friendly' Soil Monitoring Packages. In Land Degradation: Papers Selected from Contributions to the Sixth Meeting of the International Geographical Union's Commission on Land Degradation and Desertification, Perth, Western Australia, 20-28 September, 1999. (Editor A J Conacher) pp 187-206. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.

Lobry de Bruyn. L. A. (2005).  The use of distributed problem-based learning and threaded discourse in teaching natural sciences at university level: problems and prospects.  In Teaching in Life Sciences: Learner Centred Approaches. Eds C. McLoughlin and A. Taji, Haworth Press: UK. Pp 85-104.

Lobry de Bruyn. L. A. (2008). Chapter 33. Adapting problem-based learning to an online learning. In Volume II of Handbook of Research on Learning Designs and Learning Objects: Issues, Applications and Technologies. Eds: L. Lockyer, S. Bennett, S. Agostinho, and B. Harper,   IGI Publishing: USA, UK. Pp 676-701. ISBN 978-1-59904-861-1

Lobry de Bruyn, L. A. (2011).  Chapter 7.  Testing strategies to enhance online student collaboration in a problem-based learning activity. In Techniques for Fostering Collaboration in Online Communities: Theoretical and Practical Perspectives, Eds: F. Pozzi, and D. Persico, IGI Publishing: USA. Pp 99-123 ISBN 978-1-61692-898-8

REFEREED JOURNAL ARTICLES

Lobry de Bruyn, L. A., and Conacher, A. J. (1990).  The role of termites and ants in soil modification: a review. Australian Journal of Soil Research.  28: 55-93.

This paper has been cited 181 times (December 2012). Over 100 reprint requests for this paper from countries around the world have been received, and it has been cited in journal articles, such as the Australian Journal of Soil Research and Journal of Soil Science.

Lobry de Bruyn, L. A. (1993).  Defining soil macrofauna composition and activity for biopedological studies: a case study on two soils in the Western Australian wheatbelt. Australian Journal of Soil Research.  31: 83-95.

Lobry de Bruyn, L. A. (1993).  Ant composition and activity in naturally vegetated and farmland environments on contrasting soils at Kellerberrin, Western Australia. Soil Biology and Biochemistry.  25: 1043-1056

Lobry de Bruyn, L. A. and Conacher, A. J. (1994). The effect of ant biopores on water infiltration in soils in undisturbed bushland and in farmland in a semi-arid environment. Pedobiologia. 38 193-207

Lobry de Bruyn, L. A. and Conacher, A. J. (1994). The bioturbation activity of ants in agricultural and naturally vegetated habitats in semi-arid environments.  Australian Journal of Soil Research. 32 555-570.

Lobry de Bruyn, L. A. and Conacher, A. J. (1995).  Soil modification by mound-building termites in the central wheatbelt of Western Australia. Australian Journal of Soil Research. 33 179-193

Hulugalle, N. R., Lobry de Bruyn, L. A., and Entwistle, P. (1997). Residual effects of tillage and crop rotation on soil properties, soil invertebrate numbers and nutrient uptake in an irrigated Vertisol sown to cotton.  Applied Soil Ecology 7: 11-30.

Lobry de Bruyn, L.A.  (1997). The status of soil macrofauna as indicators of soil health to monitor the sustainability of Australian agricultural soils. Ecological Economics 23: 167-178

Lobry de Bruyn, L.A., Jenkins, B.A., and Sutrisno. (1997). Soil Invertebrate Biodiversity in Stringybark Forest in the New England Tablelands before Clearing. Memoirs of the Museum of Victoria 56: 295-303.

Lobry de Bruyn, L. A. and Kingston, T. J. (1997). Effects of summer irrigation and trampling in dairy pastures on soil physical properties and earthworm number and species composition.  Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 48: 1059-79. Available at CSIRO Publish: http://www.publish.csiro.au/journals/article.cfm?F=A94132.pdf

Lobry de Bruyn, L. A. (1999). Ants as Bioindicators of Soil Function in Rural Environments. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 74: 425-441.

Nkem, J. N., L. A. Lobry de Bruyn, C. D. Grant, N. R. Hulugalle (2000). The impact of ant bioturbation and foraging activities on surrounding soil properties Pedobiologia 44: 609-21.

Vanderwoude, C. and Lobry de Bruyn, L. A. (2000).  Short-term responses by ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) to selective timber harvesting of an open forest in eastern Australia.  Australian Forestry. 63: 185-194

Vanderwoude, C., Lobry de Bruyn, L. A. and House, A. P. N.  (2000a). Response of an open-forest ant community to invasion by the introduced ant Pheidole megacephala.  Austral Ecology. 25: 253–259.

Vanderwoude, C., Lobry de Bruyn, L. A., and House, A. P. N. (2000b). Long-term ant community responses to selective harvesting of timber from spotted gum (Corymbia variegata) dominated forests in south-east Queensland.  Ecological Management and Restoration, 1: 204-214.

Lobry de Bruyn, L. A. (2001).  Views from the Inside: the role of regional vegetation committees in collaborative natural resource management. Natural Resource Management 4: 2-8

Nkem, J. N., Lobry de Bruyn L. A., Grant C. D. and Hulugalle N. R. (2002). Changes in invertebrate populations over the growing cycle of an N-fertilised and unfertilised wheat crop in rotation with cotton in a grey Vertosol. Applied Soil Ecology 20: 69-74.

Lobry de Bruyn, L. A. and Abbey, J. A. (2003). Characterisation of farmers' soil sense and the implications for on-farm monitoring of soil health. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 43: 285-305. Available at CSIRO Publish: http://www.publish.csiro.au/journals/article.cfm?F=EA00176.pdf

Lobry de Bruyn, L. A. (2004). Monitoring online communication: can the development of convergence and social presence indicate an interactive learning environment?  Distance Education 25: 67-81.

Nkem, J. N., Lobry de Bruyn, L. A. and King, K. (revised). Monitoring changes in surface-active invertebrate composition and abundance under agricultural management practices with increasing soil disturbance on Vertosols in North-West New South Wales. Australian Journal of Soil Research.

Lobry de Bruyn, L. A. (2009). Reasons, means and consequences of monitoring soil condition for "the proper use of land" in agricultural landscapes. Extending Schumacher's Concept of Total Accounting and Accountability into the 21st Century. Advances in Public Interest Accounting, 14: 261–294.

Gollan, J. R., Lobry de Bruyn, L. A., Reid, N., Smith, D., and Wilkie, L. (2011).  Can ants be used as ecological indicators of restoration progress in dynamic environments? A case study in a revegetated riparian zone. Ecological Indicators 11: 1517-1525, 10.1016/j.ecolind.2009.09.007

Gollan, J. R., Lobry de Bruyn, L. A., Reid, N., and Wilkie, L. (2012). Can Volunteers Collect Data that are Comparable to Professional Scientists? A Study of Variables Used in Monitoring the Outcomes of Ecosystem Rehabilitation. Environmental Management: 1-10. DOI: 10.1007/s00267-012-9924-4

Lobry de Bruyn, L. A., Prior, J. C. and Mascord, L. (submitted 16 November 2012).  Measuring Up?  The influence of farm planning by regional statutory agencies on rural landholders' sustainable land management practices in rural Australia. Environmental Management.

Gollan, J. R., Lobry de Bruyn, L. A., Reid, N., and Wilkie, L. (2013). Monitoring the ecosystem service provided by dung beetles offers benefits over commonly used biodiversity metrics and a traditional trapping method. Journal for Nature Conservation 21: 183-188. DOI: 10.1016/j.jnc.2012.12.004

Lobry de Bruyn, L. A., Lenehan, J. and Prior, J. C. (online August 2013, hard copy 2014). Weaving a stronger fabric for improved outcomes. The Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension. 20: 169-189. DOI:10.1080/1389224X.2013.803991

Lobry de Bruyn, L. A. and Jenkins, A., (accepted for publication later in 2015). Reflections on Soil Education and Extension in Australia: The legacy and future of soil knowledge for sustainable land management. The Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension. 21st Special Edition Anniversary Issue.

Nguyen T, H., Lobry de Bruyn L. A. and Koech R. (2016). Impact of hydropower dam development on agriculturally-based livelihoods of resettled communities: A case study of Duong Hoa Commune in Vietnam.  International Journal of Water Resources Development. p1-19. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/07900627.2015.1121138.

Huynh, H., L. Lobry de Bruyn, J. Prior and P. Kristiansen. 2016. Community participation and harvesting of non-timber forest products in benefit-sharing pilot scheme in Bach Ma National Park, Central Vietnam. Tropical Conservation Science 9: 877-902.

Lobry de Bruyn, L. A., and Andrews, S. S. (2016). Are Australian and United States farmers using soil information for soil health management? Critical Issues on Soil Management and Conservation http://www.mdpi.com/journal/sustainability/special_issues/soil-management-conservation)  Ed Tiziano Gomerio. Sustainability 2016, 8(4), 304; doi:10.3390/su8040304

Lobry de Bruyn, L. (2016). Conservation Agriculture in Subsistence Farming: Case Studies from South Asia and Beyond Catherine Chan and Jean Fantle-Lepczyk (eds.). PB - CABI Publishing, CAB International , Wallingford, Oxfordshire, UK, 2015, xiv + 264 pages. . Ecological Management & Restoration, 17(2), e5-e6. doi: 10.1111/emr.12217

CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS (REFEREED)

Lobry de Bruyn, L. A. (1993). The changes in earthworm numbers and soil structure with the advent of summer irrigation in dairy pastures. In Proceedings of the 6th Australasian Conference on Grassland Invertebrate Ecology, 17-19 February 1993, University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand (Ed. R. Prestidge) pp 114-121 (AgResearch, Hamilton, NZ.)

Lobry de Bruyn, L. A. (1994). The influence of ant biopores (Pheidole sp.) on hydrological properties in agricultural environments in the Western Australian wheatbelt. In Soil Biota - Management in Sustainable Farming Systems. (Eds C. E. Pankhurst, B. M. Doube, V. V. S. R. Gupta, and  P. R. Grace). pp 63-66 (CSIRO: Australia)

Lobry de Bruyn, L. A. (1993). 'Agricultural Disturbance - Soil Macrofauna Composition in Temperate and Semi-arid Environments.' a poster presented at the Annual Ecological Society of Australia Conference, Research School of Biological Sciences, ANU, Canberra, 26 September - 1 October 1993.

Lobry de Bruyn, L. A. (1994). The use of soilmacrofauna as indicators of soil health.  In Proceedings of the 1994 National Landcare Conference.  Landcare in the Balance.  Wrest Point Convention Centre, Hobart 7-9 September 1994. (Eds C. H. Bastick, D. N. Wright and N. J. Mendham) p2 (DPIF: Tasmania)

Lobry de Bruyn, L. A. (1994). The effect of tillage and traffic on earthworm abundance and composition in Krasnozem Soils.   In Proceedings of Soils ain't Soils Workshop - What's Special About Krasnozems? Australian Institute of Agricultural Science National Conference and Workshop, Ulverstone Civic Centre, Ulverston, Tasmania, 5-6 September 1994. (eds A Fulton and L. A. Sparrow) pp 131-133 (Australian Istitute of Agricultural Science: Tasmania).

Lobry de Bruyn L. A. (1995).  A Survey of Soil Invertebrates in Wheat-Cotton Rotations under two levels of Tillage Management   In Cotton Research and Development Workshop, 1-2 December 1994, Narrabri. (Ed. D McKenzie).  p37-38.

Lobry de Bruyn, L. A. (1995).  The status of soil macrofauna as indicators of soil health to monitor the sustainability of agricultural soils.  In: the Proceedings if the Inaugural Ecological Economic Conference.  pp 357-366 (CARE: Armidale).

Lobry de Bruyn, L. A. (1995).  Optimising revegetation strategies for the sustainability of the soil resource.  In Proceedings of RIRDC/LWRRDC/FWPRDC Workshop, The Effects of Trees on Soil Fertility, ANU 28-30 March 1995.

Lobry de Bruyn, L. A. (1996).  The recognition of soil quality by wheatbelt farmers.  In Proceedings of the International Soil Quality Symposium, Ballarat, Victoria, 17-19 April 1996.

Hulugalle, N. R., Entwistle, P., and Lobry de Bruyn, L. A., (1997). Effect of tillage system and cotton-based cropping system on long-term cotton lint yield in an irrigated Vertisol In the Proceedings of the 14th International Soil Tillage Research Organisation, 27 July – 1 August 1997, Pulawy, Poland, eds. M Fotyma, A. Jozefuciuk, L Malicki, and J Borowiecki, IUCN, Poland, 271-274.

King, K. L., and  Lobry de Bruyn, L. A. (1997).  Biological Monitoring of Soils In Production and Environmental Monitoring Workshop Proceedings, 9-11 December 1997. Pp 75-86 (UNE: Armidale) ISBN 1 86389 465 9

Lobry de Bruyn, L. A. (1997).  Farmers' recognition and measurement of soil health, in Australia and the Netherlands, and the influence of research on their understanding.  In Landcare Changing Australia – National Conference, Adelaide Convention centre 16-19 September 1997, pp 45-46 (PISA, SA). ISBN 07 3080 1993.

Lobry de Bruyn, L. A. (1998). Farmers' Understanding of Soil Health and the Implications for Soil Monitoring. Presented at a Conference on Linking the past with the present: collaborating on land use history at Rydges Nautilus Resort, Coffs Harbour, 10-14 August.

Lobry de Bruyn, L. A., Daniels, D., and Reid, N. (1995).  The development and evaluation of a interactive approach in tertiary education.  In Proceedings of the AARE 1995 Conference, Hobart, Tasmania.

Lobry de Bruyn, L. A. and King, K. L. (1995).  Patterns of earthworm abundance in improved pastures at Chiswick.  In: the Proceedings of the 10th Annual Conference of the NSW Grasslands Society, Pasture Strategies to Target Specific Markets (Ed J F Ayres) pp 104-105  (Grassland Society, Orange).

Lobry de Bruyn, L. A., Kingston, T. J. and Temple-Smith, M. G.  (1993) Earthworm Diversity in Tasmanian Agricultural Soils.  A poster presented at the 'Conserving Biodiversity: Threats and Solutions' University of Sydney 29 June - 2 July 1993.

Lobry de Bruyn, L. A., Jenkins, B., and Sutrisno.  (1994).  Epigeic Invertebrate Biodiversity in Temperate Stringybark: (Eucalyptus laevopinae and E. caliginosa) Forest in the New England Tablelands - preliminary results of  a baseline study.  A poster to be presented and paper published at the International Temperate Forest Biodiversity Conference, Canberra 4-9 December 1994.

Lobry de Bruyn, L. A., Jenkins, B., and Sutrisno  (1995). Who are the ecosystem engineers? - soil invertebrate biodiversity in stringybark forest in the New England Tablelands before clearing.  In the Proceedings of the Invertebrate Biodiversity and Conservation Conference, Melbourne, 27 November - 1 December (to be published in the Memoirs of the Museum of Victoria).

Lobry de Bruyn, L. A.,  Reid, N., and Daniels, D. (1996). Reflections on the Application of Action Learning Principles and Innovative Teaching Techniques in Tertiary Education. In the Proceedings of Different Approaches: Theory and Practice in Higher Education. Perth, WA 8-12 July 1996.

Lobry de Bruyn, L. A. and Sutrisno (1995).  The major impacts of lakebed cropping on invertebrate composition, abundance and activity based on pitfall trapping.  In: the Proceedings of the 26th Australian Entomological Conference, 23-28 September 1995, Tamworth.

Lobry de Bruyn L. A., Sutrisno and Chilcott, C (1995).  A survey of soil and epigeic invertebrate biodiversity in irrigated cotton under two levels of tillage management and crop rotations.  In: the Proceedings of the 26th Australian Entomological Conference, 23-28 September 1995, Tamworth.

Lobry de Bruyn, L. A. and King, K. L. (1997).  Practical Session: How to Monitor Soil Biology? In Production and Environmental Monitoring Workshop Proceedings, 9-11 December 1997.  Pp163-170 (UNE: Armidale) ISBN 1 86389 465 9

Nkem, J. N., Lobry de Bruyn, L. A., Grant  C. D., and N. R. Hulugalle  (1999).  The potential of soil macrofauna activities in reducing soil degradation: the case of mound-building activities of ants (Iridomyrmex greensladei). 1999 Conference of Global Change and Terrestrial Ecosystems Focus 3 (Food and Forestry: Global Change and Global Challenges) held at Reading University, Reading, Berkshire 19-23 September 1999.

Lobry de Bruyn, L. A. (1999).  Farmers' Perspective on Soil Health: Capturing and Adapting Intuitive Understanding of Soil Health to Monitor Land Condition.  presented and published in proceedings of "Country Matters"  20-21 May Canberra 1999.  On web at: http://www.netenergy.dpie.gov.au/corporate_docs/publications/rtf/social_science/countrymatters/lobry.rtf.

Lobry de Bruyn, L. A. and J. A. Abbey (1999a).  Talking Dirt: A Qualitative Study of Farmers' Soil Sense.  presented and published in proceedings of AQR "Rigour in Qualitative Research", 5-9 July Melbourne 1999.  On web at: http://www.aqr.org.au/local/offer/papers/jabbey.htm

Lobry de Bruyn, L. A. and J. A. Abbey (1999b). Incorporating Farmers' Understanding of Soil Health into the development of soil monitoring packages. presented at COMLAND, Perth 21-24 September1999. Published in a book volume on land degradation.

Lobry de Bruyn, L. A. and Tremont, S. (1999). Optimising revegetation strategies in grazing land on the New England Tablelands for soil health - the role of soil invertebrates. In Proceedings of the 7th Australasian Conference on Grassland Invertebrate Ecology. (Ed J N Matthiessen) pp195-203 (CSIRO: Wembley). ISBN 064306592X.

Lobry de Bruyn, L. A. (2000a). Working with the Native Vegetation Conservation Act (1997) - perspectives of science representatives on Regional Vegetation Committees (RVC) in the Barwon region of NSW. In Australian National Parks and Wildlife – Law and Policy Conference – held at UNE, 16 June 2000.

Lobry de Bruyn, L. A. (2000b). Putting sustainability indicators to work for on-farm monitoring. In Application of Sustainability Indicators – to management of soil and catchment health in the northern grains region, held at UNE, 11-12 July 2000. Conference paper to be published in a special edition of Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture in 2003, and was retitled to: Characterisation of farmers' soil sense and the implications for on-farm monitoring of soil health.

Lobry de Bruyn, L. A. (2000c) Is the tail wagging the dog? Evaluating the alignment of assessment tasks with learning goals and approaches. In TEDI - Effective Teaching and Learning at University, held at Duschesne College, University of Queensland, 9-10 November, 2000. Published on the web at: http://www.tedi.uq.edu.au/conferences/teach_conference00

Lobry de Bruyn, L. A. (2000d). Formulating a common language for farmers and service-providers to use for monitoring soil condition.  In Soil 2000: New Horizons for a new Century. Australian and New Zealand Second Joint Soils Conference. Volume 2: Oral papers. (Eds J A Adams and A K Metherell). 3-8 December 2000, Lincoln University, New Zealand Society of Soil Science pp 181-182.

Lobry de Bruyn, L. A. and Po E. A. (2000). The role of shelterbelts in grazing systems in the New England Tablelands: impacts on earthworm composition and abundance.  In: the Proceedings of the 15th  Annual Conference of the NSW Grasslands Society, Identifying Profit Drivers (Ed W McDonald) pp 125-126  (Grassland Society, Orange).

Lobry de Bruyn, L. A. and Prior, J. C. (2000). Changing Student Learning Focus in Natural Resource Management Education - Problems (and some Solutions) with using Problem Based Learning. In HERDSA - Flexible Learning for a Flexible Society. Held at USQ, Toowoomba, 2-5 July 2000.  Refereed and resubmitted for publication

Nkem, J. N. and Lobry de Bruyn, L. A. (2000). The impact of cropping management systems and soil macrofauna composition on pore size distribution in vertosol soil of the Liverpool Plains, NSW. In Soil 2000: New Horizons for a new Century. Australian and New Zealand Second Joint Soils Conference. Volume 3: Poster papers. (Eds J A Adams and A K Metherell). 3-8 December 2000, Lincoln University, New Zealand Society of Soil Science pp 163-164.

King, K. L., and Lobry de Bruyn, L. A. (2001). Biological Monitoring of Soils In Production and Environmental Monitoring Workshop Proceedings, 17-19 October.  Paper No PEM010 pp1-12 (UNE: Armidale)

Lobry de Bruyn, L. A. (2001). Collaborating with farmers to develop a practical soil health checklist. Proceedings of 10th Australian Agronomy Conference, Science and Technology: delivering results for agriculture? Hobart 29  January to 1 February 2001. (Eds B. Rowe, N. Mendham, and D. Donaghy) http://www.regional.org.au/au/asa/2001/4/b/lobrydebruyn.htm#TopOfPage

Lobry de Bruyn, L. A. and King, K. L. (2001).  Monitoring Soil Biology and Plant Populations In Production and Environmental Monitoring Workshop Proceedings, 17-19 October 2001.  Paper No PEM017 pp1-7 (UNE: Armidale)

Lobry de Bruyn, L. A. and Prior, J. C. (2001a). Changing Student Learning Focus in Natural Resource Management Education - Problems (and some Solutions) with using Problem Based Learning. In Flexible Learning for a Flexible Society Proceedings of ASET/HERDSA 2000 Joint International Conference, 2-5 July Toowoomba, L. Richardson and J. Lidstone (Eds) (ASET/HERDSA, Queensland). Pp 441-451. ISBN: 0 908557 47 7

Lobry de Bruyn, L. A. and Prior, J. C. (2001). Meeting of Minds – Clashing of Cultures: evolution of teaching practice to engage students as co-learners. In Proceedings of the 24th International Conference of HERDSA 2001 – Learning Partnerships – Newcastle University, Newcastle 8-11 July, (Eds P Little, J Conway, K Cleary, S Bourke, J Archer, and A. Kingsland. ISBN 0 908557 49 3

Prior, J. C. and Lobry de Bruyn, L. A. (2001). Catchment Management and Its Implications for Intensive Agricultural Industries. In 2001 Production and Environmental Monitoring Workshop,UNE 17-19 October 2001. Paper No PEM008: 1-8.

Grills, S. M. and Lobry de Bruyn, L. A. (2002). The legacy of gully and rill erosion: farmers' capacity to manage the problem from current to prospective generation. In Proceedings of FutureSoils: managing soil resources to ensure access to markets for future generations, 2-6 December, Perth, WA. (Eds D Williamson, C. Tang and A. Rate)  p 221-222.

Hulugalle, N. R., Nkem, J. N. and Lobry de Bruyn, L. A. (2002). Invertebrate populations and N cycling during the wheat phase of wheat-cotton rotations in a Vertosol.  In Proceedings of FutureSoils: managing soil resources to ensure access to markets for future generations, 2-6 December, Perth, WA. (Eds D Williamson, C. Tang and A. Rate)  p 225-226.

Lobry de Bruyn, L. A. (2002). Monitoring and setting targets for soil health: Farmers' contribution to natural resource management goals for assessing catchment health. In Proceedings of FutureSoils: managing soil resources to ensure access to markets for future generations, 2-6 December, Perth, WA. (Eds D Williamson, C. Tang and A. Rate) p 100-101.

Nkem, J. N., Lobry de Bruyn, L. A., King, K., and Grant, C. (2002).  Soil microbial and chemical indicators of soil health response to agricultural intensification practices on black cracking clay soils. 17th World Congress of Soil Science Soil Science: confronting new realities in the 21st Century, Bangkok, Thailand, 14-20 August 2002. pp 9.

Lobry de Bruyn, L. A. (2003). Creating better environmental outcomes through incorporating farmers' experiences of monitoring land condition. In "Solutions for a better environment"  Proceedings of the 11th Agronomy Conference, 2-6 February, Geelong, Victoria. Australian Society of Agronomy. ISBN 0-9750313-0-9. Available at web at: http://www.regional.org.au/au/asa/2003/c/19/lobrydebruyn.htm

Lobry de Bruyn, L. A. (2003). Farmers understanding of soil life and is relevance to monitoring soil health. In Proceedings of 2003 Annual British Ecological Society Symposium Biological Diversity and Function in Soils. (Eds R. D. Bardgett, D. W. Hopkins, and M. B. Usher) University of Lancaster, UK, p23.

Lobry de Bruyn, L. A. (2003). Online communication in dPBL: can threaded discussion provide social presence and convergence? In 16th ODLAA Conference Sustaining quality learning environments, 1-4 October 2003, Canberra. (C McLoughlin, P. Le Cornu, W Jackson Eds) pp 10 (ODLAA: Canberra) ISBN 0-9751326-0-1.

Gollan, J. R., Smith, H., Bulbert, M., Donnelly, A., Wilkie, L., Reid, C., Lobry de Bruyn, L. A. and Reid, N. C. (2006). Community-Friendly Methods for Monitoring Riverside Rehabilitation: A Case Study. 9th International River Symposium, Managing rivers with climate change and expanding populations, 4-7 September 2006, Brisbane, Australia, vol.1. p 44.

Lobry de Bruyn, L. A. and Marshall, G. R. (2006). Re-defining the learning needs of local NRM Officers for regional NRM in Australia', International Landcare Conference Melbourne 8-11 October, 2006, vol.1, pp4. (Dept of Sustainability and Environment: Victoria)

Gollan J. R., Wilkie L., Reid C. A. M., Lobry de Bruyn L., Reid N. (2007). Assessing monitoring tools for evaluating biodiversity outcomes of riparian rehabilitation: approaches and alternatives from a river down-under. Proceedings of the 8th River Restoration Centres Annual Networking Conference, University of Chester, Chester, England. Proceedings available at: http://www.therrc.co.uk/conferences.htm

Lobry de Bruyn, L. A. (2010) 'Translating Policy into Practice: Purpose and potential of engaging landholders in monitoring soil condition', (Gilkes RJ, Prakongkep N, editors). Proceedings of the 19th World Congress of Soil Science, Solutions for a Changing World, Brisbane, 1-6 August 2010. p 190-193. ISBN 978-0-646-53783-2 Published on DVD; http://www.iuss.org  (100%) http://www.iuss.org/19th%20WCSS/Symposium/pdf/2392.pdf

Lobry de Bruyn, L.A., Prior, J. and Mascord, L. (2010)  'Reading the land: influences of Property Management Planning Courses on Landholders' Soil Management Activities in Border Rivers-Gwydir catchment Management Authority',  (Gilkes RJ, Prakongkep N, editors). Proceedings of the 19th World Congress of Soil Science, Solutions for a Changing World, Brisbane, 1-6 August 2010. p 190-193. ISBN 978-0-646-53783-2 Published on DVD; http://www.iuss.org
http://www.ldd.go.th/swcst/Report/soil/.%5Csymposium/pdf/2015.pdf

Lobry de Bruyn, L. A., Prior, J. C., and Reid, N., (2010) Keeping it Real: Valuing oral communication training and learning in the discipline of environmental science. In Rethinking Learning in your Discipline, Proceedings of the University Learning and Teaching Futures Colloquium 2010, Ed R. Muldoon, (UNE: Armidale). Pp 1-15, ISBN: 978-1-921597-26-8

Lobry de Bruyn, L. A., Lenehan, J., Prior, J. C., (2011) Designing training and education activities for the Border Rivers-Gwydir Catchment Management Authority to improve on-ground activities by landholders. In Resilient Food Systems for a Changing World, Proceedings of the 5th World Congress of Conservation Agriculture incorporating 3rd Farming Systems Design Conference, Brisbane, 26-29 September. p 518-19. http://aciar.gov.au/files/node/14068/designing_training_and_education_activities_for_th_37284.pdf

Lobry de Bruyn, L. A., Lenehan, J., Prior, J. C., (2011) Weaving a stronger fabric: designing educational and extension activities for regional NRM organisations that can lead to demonstrable practice change. In Hitting a Moving Target: Sustaining landscape, livelihoods and lifestyles in a changing world, (Ed. G Mills). Proceedings of 2011 APEN national Forum, 28-30 November, Armidale. p 62-63.

Lobry de Bruyn, L. A. (2012) The value of a boundary organization in mediating knowledge on sustainable farming systems. In Capturing Opportunities and Overcoming Obstacles in Australian Agronomy, (Ed I Yunusa) Proceedings of the 16th Agronomy Conference, 14-18 October, Armidale, pp 4. Paper found at: http://www.regional.org.au/au/asa/2012/agriculture/8078_lobrydebruynla.htm

Lobry de Bruyn, L. A. (2012) Soil knowledge management: needs and ways of knowing for a more resilient rural landscape. In: Proceedings of the 5th Joint Australian and New Zealand Soil Science Conference: Soil solutions for diverse landscapes. Hobart. (Eds LL Burkitt and LA Sparrow). p81-84. (Australian Society of Soil Science Inc.) ISBN: 978-0-646-59142-1

Chapman, G., Lobry de Bruyn, L. A., Barrett, T., and Maher, T. (2014). Mapping the immediacy of soil condition reaching irreversible tipping points to prioritise catchment actions. In: Soil Change Matters, 24-27 March 2014. Bendigo, Victoria.

Lobry de Bruyn, L. A. (2014) Soil extension needs: lessons learnt from Grain and Graze II in Northern NSW. In: Proceedings of the Soil Science Australia National Soil Science Conference: Securing Australia's soils - for profitable industries and healthy landscapes. Melbourne. (Eds A Patti, C Tang and V Wong). 5 pp (Australian Society of Soil Science Inc.). ISBN: 978-0-09586-595-2-9. http://www.soilscience2014.com/proceedings/deBruyn.pdf

Lobry de Bruyn, L. A. and Jenkins, A.  (2015) Soil is the mirror of landscapes: Reflections on the legacy and future of soil knowledge management for sustainable farming. In Building Productive, Diverse and Sustainable Landscapes. Proceedings of the 17th ASA Conference, 20 – 24 September 2015, Hobart, Australia. http://www.agronomy2015.com.au/papers/agronomy2015final00287.pdf

Lobry de Bruyn, L. A. (2015) Do farmers value soil information for soil health management? Exploring farmers’ motivations in collecting and using soil information in agriculture.  Thriving Through Transformation: Local to Global Sustainability, ANZSEE Biennial Conference UNE, Armidale NSW, 19 - 23 October 2015. p 42 (Abstract only, Oral presentation)

REPORTS

Lobry de Bruyn, L. A. (1986).  Draft Coastal Management Plan: Shire of Coorow. (Dept. Conservation and Environment: Perth.) Bulletin 237.

Lobry de Bruyn, L. A. and Grzegorz Ochman, P. (1987).  Draft Coastal Management Plan: Cervantes Area. (Dept. Conservation and Environment: Perth.) Bulletin 247.

Lobry de Bruyn, L. A. and Sutrisno (1994).  Survey of Terrestrial Invertebrates in two Cropped lakebeds and neighbouring Coolibah Woodlands. (unpublished research consultancy report for Dr Sue Briggs of NPWS) pp 22

Prior, J., Lobry de Bruyn, L. and Mascord, L.  (2009)  Evaluation of the Border Rivers-Gwydir Catchment Management Authority Property Management Planning Program. Final report and recommendations for the Border Rivers-Gwydir Catchment Management Authority, University of New England, Armidale.

Lobry de Bruyn, L.,Lenehan, J.and Prior, J. (2011)  Evaluation of Behaviour Change Resulting from Education and Extension Programs for Border Rivers-Gwydir Catchment Management Authority. Final report and recommendations for the Border Rivers-Gwydir Catchment Management Authority, University of New England, Armidale. pp 183

Lobry de Bruyn, L. A (2013) First Approximation: Evidence-based Soil Health Investment Prioritisation for NSW. A report for the NSW Natural Resources Commission, September 2013, UNE: Armidale.  pp29.

Contributed to:
O'Connor, A. (1985). Towards a Management Plan for the Wooroloo Drainage Basin. (Dept. of Geography, U.W.A: Nedlands) Geowest  21.

ELECTRONIC

Lobry de Bruyn, L. (2002). Description of Problem Based Learning in Natural Resource Management. Retrieved March 11, 2003 , from Learning Designs Web site:http://www.learningdesigns.uow.edu.au/beta5/exemplars/info/LD28/index.htm#context

EXTENSION MATERIAL

Initiated development of 'EARTHWORM - identification and collection kit for Tasmanian landholders' which will become an extension tool for educating landholders about the various earthworm species recorded in Tasmanian soils, supply data to build upon initial surveys completed in Northern Tasmania and the Midlands, and to develop an earthworm database for various land uses and soil types on the DPIF's Geographic Information System (GIS).

AWARDS

1986 -1988:   PhD research partly funded by the CSIRO Division of Wildlife and Ecology

1988-1989:    PhD research assisted by an Australian Research Council (ARC) granted to Associate Professor Arthur Conacher.

1986-1990:    Australian Commonwealth Postgraduate Award.

1994:            1994 National Landcare BP Research Award

Research Supervision Experience

Postgraduate Students: Doctor of Philosophy

Casper Vanderwoude (2000, conferred)  
An evaluation of ant communities as indicators of ecological changes resulting from anthropogenic disturbance in spotted gum (Corymbia citriodora) forests in south-east Queensland.

Russell Harlen (2001, conferred)
Changes in epigeic community following livestock removal from remnant woodland.

Johnson Nkem (2003, conferred)
Evaluation of Soil Health Indicators under a Land Use Intensification Gradient on Vertosols in the Liverpool Plains, NSW, Australia.

Melinda McNaught (2007, conferred)
The study of behavioural mechanisms contributing to the ecological impacts of invasive ant species in South-East Queensland.

John Gollan (2008, conferred)
Terrestrial invertebrates in riparian habitats: Using biotic structure and ecological functioning to assess the state of riparian rehabilitation.

Nakunu Nanendo (2014, conferred)
A critical analysis of decentralisation and community-based irrigation water resource governance in Ghana.