At university, you become part of an academic community. As with any other community, there are particular ways of behaving, particular values and practices that are important. You will be expected to demonstrate these scholarly practices in your work.

Academic knowledge builds on the knowledge of other scholars. The process of "knowledge building" is a collaborative exercise, a dialogue or debate between scholars. New knowledge often emerges from existing knowledge. In the spirit of fairness, it is important, therefore, for academics to acknowledge where their information and ideas have come from. One of the most important practices for you to learn while you are studying at university is how to acknowledge where your ideas have come from in the work that you do.

By acknowledging what other scholars have said, you become a part of this exchange of ideas within the particular debate. Attributing the source of your ideas and words has a number of important consequences:

  • Your readers can see where your argument or opinion fits into the discussion.
  • Your readers can see that you are writing from an informed position and providing evidence and support for your claims.
  • Your readers can search for the source themselves if they wish to pursue that idea further.

This acknowledgement is done by a system of conventions called referencing.

The University expects all students to provide appropriate references to the words, ideas, theories, data, pictures, etc. of others that are used in any assignment. There are a number of different styles in use at UNE, so the conventions may differ depending on what ever style you are using, but the principle remains the same.  You will provide a reference any time you quote, paraphrase, summarise or use any information from another source. You will be behaving ethically and honestly by acknowledging all your sources in your work, and will avoid any accusations of plagiarism.

Please note: The list below is intended as a guide only. Students should always check their unit guide or ask their unit coordinators for confirmation about the required referencing style.

Table showing the disciplines at UNE and the referencing styles used by each


Referencing style

School of Rural Medicine
Rural Medicine Vancouver
School of Health
Health APA
School of Psychology
School of Law
UNE Business School
Accounting and Finance APA, Chicago Author-Date
Financial Services APA, Chicago Author-Date
Marketing APA, Chicago Author-Date
Management APA, Chicago Author-Date
Human Resource Management APA, Chicago Author-Date
Economics, Econometrics and Economic History APA, Chicago Author-Date
Agricultural and Resource Economics APA, Chicago Author-Date
Organisational Leadership APA, Chicago Author-Date
School of Environment and Rural Sciences
Agronomy and Soil ScienceAPA
Animal ScienceAPA
Earth SciencesAPA
Ecosystem ManagementAPA
School of Science and Technology
Biomedical ScienceAPA
Computer ScienceAPA
Human Biology and PhysiologyAPA
Molecular and Cellular BiologyAPA
Physics and ElectronicsAPA
PharmacyAPA *Check your unit guide or with your unit coordinator for specific directions on the required referencing systems for your units.
Sports and Exercise ScienceAPA
School of Education 
School of Humanities, Arts and Social Sciences
Philosophy AGPS
Indigenous Studies AGPS
History Footnoting, Chicago footnoting
Ancient History AGPS, Footnoting
Religion AGPS, Footnoting
Politics and International Studies AGPS
Peace Studies AGPS, Footnoting
Classics Chicago Author-Date
Archaeology* Journal of Archaeological Science, Australian Archaeology, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Journal of Human Evolution .
*Check your unit guide for specific directions on the required referencing systems for your units.
EnglishChicago Author-Date, Chicago Footnoting, MLA
Communication and MediaChicago Author-Date, Chicago Footnoting, MLA, AGPS
WritingChicago Author-Date, Chicago Footnoting, MLA, AGPS
LanguagesAPA, Chicago Author-Date
MusicChicago Author-Date, Chicago Footnoting, AGPS
Geography and PlanningAPA
SociologyChicago Author-Date