Animal Science Seminar Series
Poultry Intestinal Health, Pathogen Control With Probiotics And Organic Alternatives To AGPS - Associate Professor Dragana Stanley
Tuesday 27th March 2018.
Gut health is important to the health and productivity of agricultural animals. The microbial populations that inhabit the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) play a major role in the establishment and maintenance of a healthy gut and immune system. Gut microbiota helps digest food, produce health promoting metabolites, regulates and primes the immune system, controls fat storage and obesity, produces hormones and regulates some brain functions. Outnumbering host cells 10 fold, intestinal bacteria represent an important organ which has a beneficial influence on host health. In addition to a number of benefits it provides to the host, intestinal microbiota is also a majorsource of pathogens. Intestinal microbial communities in chickens assume a near-stable state within the week which leaves a very small window for permanent microbiota remodelling. It is the first colonisers that determine the fate of microbial community in humans and birds alike, and after the microbiota has matured there are very small odds for permanent modification as stable community resists change. This presentation will cover outcomes from the microbiota manipulation experiments aiming to permanently modify intestinal microbiota at hatch or during the first week for perpetual health benefits. The use of in-feed antibiotic growth which the host-microbiota promoters (AGPs) is one way in interaction has been manipulated. AGPs have been used to control pathogens and improve productivity. A rapid increase in the volume of free range and organic agricultural products is also driving the need in the Australian industry for efficient natural alternatives to the use of antibiotics. This has critical implications for issues of national concern such as food security, the economy, bio-security, health and wellbeing of the population who consume agricultural animals. We will also present the data on microbiota manipulation using natural AGP alternatives.
Associate Professor Dragana Stanley from Central Queensland University is an ARC fellow in poultry research. Dr Stanley is one of Australia’s highest contributors to the field of poultry intestinal microbiota, however she is also well known in human microbiota and immunological research. Based on Scopus and SciVal benchmarking feature, 58.8% of all of her manuscripts are in world’s top 10% best journals and 57.1% of her manuscripts belong to top 10% most cited publications in the world. Dr Stanley is author of 4 Nature publications and first author on Nature Medicine manuscript investigating role of bacterial translocation in post stoke pneumonia.
Genome-wide Association Study For Milk Traits In Buffaloes - Rommel Herrera
PhD Student, University of New England
Tuesday 3rd April 2018.
Selection of dairy buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bulls in the Philippines so far is based on the milk performance of their daughters (progeny testing). However, this takes seven years before the identification of the “best” bulls. With the availability of a medium density DNA chip for buffalo, it is now possible to genotype 90,000 markers (single nucleotide polymorphism: SNPs) per animal. Based on these SNP markers, it is now possible to predict the breeding value of a bull even without production data, thus reducing the generation interval and hastening genetic progress. It is also possible to identify chromosome regions very close to these markers that contain genes with large effects related to desired traits. To do this, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) is conducted, wherein animals with performance data (milk traits: milk yield, fat yield and protein yield) are genotyped and significant SNP markers associated with the above traits are identified. To know more about this topic, you are all invited to attend the ASS this coming April 3 and here Rommel will talk about “Genome-wide association study for milk traits in buffaloes”.
Rommel is a PhD student from the Philippines working on ”the use of genomic data in a dairy buffalo breeding program”. His principal supervisor is Professor Julius van der Werf.
Implementation Of Net Energy Evaluating System In Layer Hens: Validation By Performance And Egg Quality
Tuesday 10th April 2018.
The feed cost accounts for most of the production costs. The costs of ingredients supplying energy for the animal contribute the largest portion of total diet costs. The knowledge about the diets ingredients contents is a necessity for the nutritionist to formulate diets meeting the animal’s requirements and optimizing their optimizing their production. Different feeds’ energy evaluating system is available for mono gastric animals, pigs, and poultry, in terms of digestible energy (DE), apparent metabolisable energy (AME), and net energy (NE). The NE considers that part of energy wastes dissipating as heat through the digestion and metabolism. So, hypothetically, formulating the diets according to the real available amount of energy, NE, is better than the current feed formulating system, AME. In our experiment at UNE with big numbers of layers, we formulated diets on different feeds’ energy evaluating system to see whether is any beneficial effects on the birds’ performance, egg quality parameters, and economics. The results are promising and I am looking forward to seeing you on my seminar day!
Feeding Strategies To Enhance Foregut Development In Broilers - Ines Rodrigues
PhD student, University of New England
Tuesday 17th April 2018.
Broiler chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus), commonly referred to as broilers, are meat-type chickens raised for marketing at a young age, usually 5 to 7 weeks. Since their domestication in Southeast Asia around 7 to 10,000 years ago, they have been developed into the most efficient terrestrial production animals. They are twice as efficient as swine and four times more efficient than cattle in converting nutrients present in the feed into muscle/body weight. In spite of innately exhibiting an intermittent feeding behavior, broiler chickens have been reared in commercial operations throughout the past decades on either continuous or near continuous illumination (23 hours of light and 1 hour or dark) or with daily, human-like schedules (16 to 18 hours of light and 6 to 8 hours of dark) and fed ad libitum, and continue being so in most operations, in the certainty that this practice maximizes feed intake and growth rate. With further progress in terms of performance being sought, and following decades of research focusing on distal GIT segments, it is about time to explore the impact foregut manipulation can have on growth and health of broiler chickens.
Sniffing Out Insect Invaders – A Novel Approach To Upskill Biosecurity Dogs - Ariella MoserTuesday 8th May
In Australia, biosecurity sniffer dogs are employed at our borders to search for biological hazards that risk introducing exotic species or diseases. Although biosecurity dogs screen for an impressive number of plant and organic materials, they have never before been trained to detect live insects. Training dogs to find exotic insects could enable us to locate hidden pests in cargo and potentially prevent incursions.
However, training dogs using live insects is problematic, since importing exotic invasive bugs is prohibited by quarantine regulations. In collaboration with the Department of Agriculture and Water Resources, we are exploring alternative approaches to train dogs without the use of live insects. So far, we have found promising results using solvent scent extract and frozen dead insects, which have successfully translated to dogs finding live insects with a high degree of accuracy within just a few days. In the future, it’s hoped that these techniques may be used to train biosecurity dogs to search for exotic insects at our border.
Feeding Strategies To Enhance Foregut Development In Broilers - Ines Rodrigues
Tuesday 8th May
Broiler chickens (Gallus gallusdomesticus), commonly referred to as broilers, are meat-type chickens raised for marketing at a young age, usually 5 to 7 weeks. Since their domestication in Southeast Asia around 7 to 10,000 years ago, they have been developed into the most efficient terrestrial production animals. They are twice as efficient as swine and four times more efficient than cattle in converting nutrients present in the feed into muscle/body weight.
In spite of innately exhibiting an intermittent feeding behavior, broiler chickens have been reared in commercial operations throughout the past decades on either continuous or near continuous illumination (23 hours of light and 1 hour or dark) or with daily, human-like schedules (16 to 18 hours of light and 6 to 8 hours of dark) and fed ad libitum, and continue being so in most operations, in the certainty that this practice maximizes feed intake and growth rate.
With further progress in terms of performance being sought, and following decades of research focusing on distal GIT segments, it is about time to explore the impact foregut manipulation can have on growth and health of broiler chickens.
Comparison Of Genetic Models To Analyse Feed Efficiency - Antonio Torres-Vazques
Tuesday 29th May
Providing feed to animals is a major input cost in almost any animal production system. The efficiency of converting this feed into useable animal products, commonly referred to as feed efficiency, has become a common objective in many beef cattle breeding programs. The interest in feed efficiency has increased over the last decades. Not only because is important to increase food production due to the growing human population, but also because feed efficiency is related with the feed cost of production. Residual feed intake is increasing in popularity as a measure of feed efficiency in beef cattle. The genetic analysis of traits directly related to estimate residual feed intake (e.g. live weight and daily feed intake) must be done with greatest possible accuracy. In this context, we compare different genetic models to analyse live weight and daily feed intake, and we study how the genetic relationship between these traits change over time.
Antonio Torres-Vazquez is a veterinarian in his second year of his PhD. His research interest ranges from estimation of genetic parameters to optimisation of breeding programs. Antonio has completed a Master in Science with specialization in Animal Breeding and Genetics and currently is investigating the genetic variability of feed efficiency traits in Australian Angus Cattle.
Identification And Epidemiology Of Vectors For TheileriaOrientalis On The Northern Tablelands Of NSW Using Molecular Techniques
Tuesday 5th June
Oriental Theileriosis is a tick borne disease of cattle and buffalos caused by the protozoan parasite, Theileria which affects the red blood cells. The disease is usually found in tropical and subtropical regions where suitable tick vectors occur. Out of the different genotypes, Ikeda and Chitose are consistently found to be associated with severe disease. Research and investigation of cases involving infection with T. orientalis in Australia has been ongoing. Despite various studies in the genotype identification of the parasite, information on the seasonal abundance of vectors is scarce. In addition to bush ticks (Haemaphysalislongicornis), the involvement of other reported tick species, biting flies and lice in the transmission of the parasite needs to be investigated. Moreover, since the Northern Tableland is less preferable for ticks as compared to coastal regions because of long severe winter, the full appreciation of vectors in the transmission of the parasite needs to be addressed for proper control. Therefore, our project is undertaken to better understand the potential vectors along with the genotype profile and their seasonal abundance in the study areas of the Northern Tablelands of NSW using qPCR. Furthermore, the study will look into the salivary glands of ticks to determine their infection status with the parasite.
Virtual Fencing And Sheep Welfare
Tuesday 5th June
Virtual fencing systems are an exciting new farm management tool, with potential to reduce costs associated with traditional fencing, and offer more flexibility for producers to manage their grazing and land use. But how do the animals feel about this new tech? This research will investigate the potential welfare implications of virtual fencing, and the role that the various learning strategies of sheep may play in ensuring that virtual fencing systems can be implemented in an ethical and sustainable way.
Does Meat And Bone Meal, Phytase And Antibiotics Affect Gut Dysfunction, Blood Indices And Bone Integrity In Broiler Chickens During Necrotic Enteritis Challenge?
Tuesday 10th July
Meat and bone meal (MBM) is an economical source of protein, calcium and phosphorus in broiler diets. However, the high level of indigestible protein in MBM potentially acts to predispose growing chickens to necrotic enteritis (NE). Undigested protein is deaminated in the hindgut and releases ammonia that increases pH favouring growth of pathogenic C. perfringens. Phytase enzyme used at normal (500 FTU per kg diet) or super-dose (1500 FTU/kg) have been used over the years to release nutrients especially Ca and P in poultry diets. Therefore, a diet formulation that seeks to replace MBM with phytase is worth-investigating. Since most Australian meat chicken diets contain both MBM and antibiotics, it is not far-fetched to think that the use of phytase without MBM might reduce or eliminate the need for antibiotics. It was on this premise that a study was designed to investigate the effect of superdosing phytase with or without dietary MBM and with or without antibiotics on performance during necrotic enteritis. This seminar will give a snippet of the whole study and highlight the physiological effects of MBM-free or MBM- based diets on the integrity of the gut, bone and blood parameters of chickens during necrotic enteritis and whether or not phytase enzymes or antibiotics played a major role in ameliorating these effects.
Tuesday 12th December 2017.
Village chickens are a major component of poultry in many developing countries. These birds use negligible inputs and labour to produce high quality protein, they are a source of income, manure for crop production and they are used for socio-cultural purposes. But, despite their significant contribution towards livelihood of smallholder farmers (that are a majority in most developing countries), productivity of village chickens is still low. There have been attempts to improve productivity through crossing with commercial breeds but crossbreeds did not fit well into smallholder production systems. Could the best approach to improved productivity of village chickens be improvement in management within the prevailing environment where these chickens are already accustomed?
Tuesday 12th December, 2017.
Many longer term effects of preterm and dysmature (small for gestational age) birth in equines are currently unknown. We know that foetal stress occurs, due to problems such as undernutrition, placentitis, and hypoxia, and/or environmental stresses that affect the dam, and that any one of these can lead to prematurity and low birthweight. Although the ongoing musculoskeletal issues associated with prematurity or dysmaturity at birth are frequently observed, research into permanent endocrinological issues caused by stress in the perinatal period remains highly limited. This study investigated whether healthy horses with a history of prematurity or dysmaturity at birth present a degree of adrenocortical dysregulation that persists beyond the juvenile phase and into adulthood, potentially leading to a different response to stress in these horses.
Tuesday 3rd October, 2017.
A common breeding objective for Angus beef producers in Australia is improving the carcase quality of animals in their breeding program. Traditionally, direct carcase traits like intramuscular fat (IMF) and marbling score have been expensive and difficult, if not impossible to measure on selection candidates. Due to this limitation, breeders can use a correlated ultrasound scan measurement on the live animal to increase selection accuracy at the point of selection. The most common ultrasound scanning technology used to predict carcase IMF in Australian Angus herds is the Esaote Aquila system produced by Pie Medical (PIE). This technology allows crush-side and real-time image capture, interpretation and analysis using inbuilt software and algorithms. An alternative approach for the prediction of carcase IMF is the Central Ultrasound Processing (CUP) system. The CUP system uses unique software and algorithms to predict carcase IMF through a centralised image analysis laboratory on images which are also captured crush-side through ultrasound scanning. This seminar will present findings comparing the phenotypic and genetic parameters for the two live-animal ultrasound systems (PIE and CUP) and their relationship with carcase IMF and marbling scores. Results indicate that the CUP ultrasound scan technology is most suitable for genetic evaluation of Angus cattle for IMF.
Tuesday 28th November, 2017.
The most important economic factor in broiler production is feed cost where energy sources represent a major part. The maximisation of feed energy utilisation is therefore the major target of a nutritionist. This can be done by using feed supplements, as well as accurately measuring the useable feed energy. In fact, feed digestion and nutrient absorption are key elements for feed utilisation. These can be boosted by exogenous enzymatic supplement through counteracting the effect of anti-nutrition factors and reducing nutrient flow in the hind gut thereby ensuring a balanced gut microbial community. The latter can also be improved by functional feed, such as probiotic use. Energy measurement is another key factor to optimise dietary energy utilisation. Metabolisable energy system is commonly used to express energy concentration in diets, because it is easy to measure and can provide repetitive values. However, the energy measured by this system is not completely available to the bird to meet its energy requirements as part of it is lost through heat increment of feeding. The net energy (NE) system was then suggested to provide energy values closer to the true requirements of the bird. However, its use has been limited mainly because it is expensive to measure and no accurate prediction can be achieved in poultry. While efforts towards NE feed formulation have been made, molecular analysis is able to shed light on the mechanisms underlying better utilisation of energy, as the activity of ATP related metabolism in cells can be measured. .
Tuesday 7th November, 2017.
The effects of sprouted barley fodder and feedlot finisher diets on rumen fermentation parameters, nutrient digestibilities and enteric methane production were investigated in a 42-d completely randomised design using 18-19 month old beef cattle (348 16.1 kg). It was hypothesised that same source barley grain would reduce methane yield (g CH4 / kg DMI) when fed as a 5-day sprouted fodder, relative to the same grain when fed in a total mixed feedlot finisher diet. Ten Aberdeen Angus heifers were allocated into two treatment groups (n = 5) and each group was offered one of two equivalent restricted intake (5.97 kg/ DM) diets containing either 25 kg 5-day sprouted barley fodder plus 2 kg wheaten chaff (SF; as-fed) or 6.8 kg commercial mix feedlot finisher (FF; as-fed). Two 24 h methane measurement periods were taken from each animal in open circuit respiration chambers on days 39 and 41. Ten grams of Cr2O3 was fed as an indigestible marker on days 32-41 with faecal samples taken (5 x 2) for apparent digestibility determinations. Pre-and 4 h post-feeding rumen fluid samples were collected for fermentation parameters on days 41 and 42. It was concluded that feeding the SF diet reduced both methane production (CH4 L/d) by 29.5 % (P = 0.001) and methane yield (CH4 / kg DM) by 24.9 % (P = 0.004) in comparison to the FF diet. DMD (%), ME Intake (MJ/kg.DM), starch digestibility (%) NDF intake (g/d) and starch intake (g/d) all differed significantly between the SF and FF diet treatments (P < 0.001) however there was no diet effect on DMI (g/d) and ADG (kg/d). Total protozoa populations (x 105/mL) were 88.4 % higher in the FF diet (P < 0.001) while total VFA was significantly increased in the SF treatment animals (P < 0.000). This study confirms the beneficial effects of sprouted barley fodder diets on reducing enteric methane from ruminant animals while increasing ruminal fermentation and suggests further research is warranted.
Tuesday 31st October, 2017.
Predator attacks on livestock is a major cause of human-wildlife conflict seen not only in Australia but around the world. The use of guardian animals to protect another domesticated species has been used globally as a form of predator deterrent; however, there is little scientific based evidence in relation to the effectiveness of guardian alpacas. To better understand the factors influencing their effectiveness, the behaviours exhibited by alpacas in response to a predatory threat first need to be quantified. In this study forty-four alpacas of different ages and sex were presented with a neutral novel stimulus and a novel stimulus that resembled a predator. Their responses to the stimuli were recorded and analysed to examine if there is a behavioural difference between males and females and different age groups. Although older male alpacas are recommended for use as guardian animals our results show that young alpacas and females possess a possible greater potential as guardian animals. This seminar will explore the findings from this study and give insight into alpacas: guardian angels for sheep.
Tuesday 31st October, 2017.
Antibiotics have been used for many decades to improve performance and to maintain the health integrity of animals. However, due to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria some of which are pathogenic to humans, the European Union placed a ban on in-feed antibiotics usage over two decades ago, with other regions seeking to implement similar legislation. A global ban on in-feed antibiotics usage in animal production, if implemented without prior availability of suitable alternatives, will lead to reduced productivity and various health-related issues that will affect the tremendous progress so far achieved by the global animal industries. In recent times, research interest has been geared towards the use of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) as a possible alternative to in-feed antibiotics in broiler production. The use of yeast as a potential alternative to antibiotics is based on the fact that it contains glucan and mannan polysaccharides, which have been reported to have some similarities in mode of mechanisms as antibiotics. However, results on the efficacy of yeast as an alternative to antibiotics has been inconsistent due to differences in yeast structure, forms, feed composition and research methods as well as levels of inclusion used. Based on these facts, our project seeks to test the efficacy of four yeast-based products on the performance and physiological functions of broiler chickens.
Tuesday 29th August, 2017.
ASKBILL is a web-based program that uses farm measurements, climate data and information on genetics to predict pasture growth, animal performance and animal health and climate risks. The program uses several biophysical models, and the animal growth model can be used estimate supplementary feeding rates required to achieve target live weights and body condition scores and stocking rates required to achieve target pasture levels. The models can be customized for a farm and its livestock and are automatically updated daily to enable early-stage alerts to users when animal and pasture targets are unlikely to be met.
Tuesday 17th October, 2017.
Free-ranging dogs (FRDs) are common pets in remote Aboriginal communities for many reasons including (companionship, hunting, warmth and kinship). Cats have recently become increasingly kept as pets. With issues such as overpopulation, poor animal welfare, zoonosis, and predation of wildlife by FRDs and cats, management needs to be improved. Animal health programs have been implemented in many remote Aboriginal communities where a veterinarian delivers de-sexing, parasite control and voluntary euthanasia. However, due to financial restrictions many of these programs are not frequent enough to fully ‘manage’ a population. Collaborations have occurred, with Outsiders, which were successful for a number of years until the funding stopped. My PhD focuses on a framework we designed to encourage and assist local Aboriginal people to raise an issue, discuss its impacts and causes and how to intervene. Capacity building will be incorporated into all aspects including how to monitor their interventions including census taking and wildlife surveys. This talk will briefly discuss the framework as a whole and detail the baseline data and the first phase: Identifying the issue.
Brooke completed her Bachelor of Zoology here at UNE along with her Honours in Animal Science. Now in her 1st year of her PhD, she is looking to improve the welfare of companion animals in remote Aboriginal communities as well as building the capacity of the community by involving them in all aspects of the research.
Tuesday 3rd October, 2017.
Range use by laying hens is associated with better animal welfare due to the access to a more natural environment and more chances to do natural behaviours which leads to better leg bone development, fewer gait problems and reduced risk of feather pecking. However, obtaining good flock uniformity of body weight in a free-range system may be challenging due to the inherent variation in range use of individual hens. Flock uniformity of body weight in free-range laying hens is important to increase the egg laying performance and profitability of commercial egg production. In commercial farms, access to the range has accentuated the problem of maintaining a highly uniform body weight in a flock. This seminar will focus on a study conducted to determine the influence of range use on body weight and flock uniformity by tracking individual hens using Radio frequency identification tags. .
Tuesday 3rd October, 2017.
Measures to improve nutrient digestibility, gut health and bird performance and welfare have been sought due to the imminent phase out of in-feed antibiotics in poultry and continued demand for higher poultry feeding efficiency. A study was conducted at UNE, as a part of PhD project, to promote gizzard development by manipulation of feed physical structure by using coarse particle ingredient or addition of fibre. The hypothesis was that larger ingredient particles and higher dietary fibre content enhance digestive enzyme secretion, intestinal nutrient transporters and nutrient digestibility, and thus improve broiler performance and litter quality. The results demonstrated that both sugarcane bagasse, as a source of insoluble fibre, and coarse particle size modulated the expression of genes encoding important digestive enzymes and nutrient transporters and thus were directly related to bird performance. Further, the combination of CC and sugarcane bagasse in broiler diets is beneficial to broiler performance through the upregulation of both proventricular pepsinogen A and C. These findings provide insights into the combined effects of dietary fiber and particle size in the future management of broiler feeding. The talk will present our findings and possible mechanisms underlying improved nutrient digestibility and performance through manipulation of diet by structural component.
Tuesday 26th September, 2017.
Infectious bronchitis is an acute and highly contagious disease of chickens which is caused by a coronavirus. As the name suggests, it affects the respiratory system but also other organs including the kidneys, oviduct and gastrointestinal tract. The presence of the disease in Australia was first documented in 1962 by Robin Cumming of UNE. At the time, IB was considered an exotic disease in Australia and Rob had great difficulty convincing the veterinary bureaucracy in Australia that the disease was, indeed, present. Fortunately, senior people at UNE gave Rob their full support and he was able to publish his findings in the Australian Veterinary Journal. Many studies on IBV have been completed at UNE by Rob and Roger Cumming and more recently by students and technical staff in Julie Roberts’ laboratory. Some of the main findings will be presented in the seminar.
Julie Roberts completed an Honours degree in Zoology at James Cook University and a PhD in Animal Physiology at Flinders University. She then worked for a short while in the Department of Physiology at the University of New South Wales before completing Postdoctoral Fellowships at the University of British Columbia in Canada and the University of Arizona in the U.S.A. Julie arrived at UNE as a Lecturer in Physiology in 1986 and has been here ever since. She plans to retire in 2018. Julie’s main research interests are electrolyte and water balance in birds and mammals and factors affecting egg quality in laying hens.
Tuesday 29th Ausgust, 2017.
Influential economist Jeffrey Sachs and tech-friendly institutions such as the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF) believe that modern technologies can be used to transform the agriculture development process. Others point to the long list of silver bullet technologies that have done little but gather dust. I present the experience we have had working with various international collaborators to understand the needs and find solutions for smallholder dairy farmers in Africa and India. Smallholder dairying supplies 85% to 100% of the milk in countries of East Africa and India, where demand for milk is high and continues to grow rapidly. Smallholder dairying is primarily based on crosses between indigenous cattle and exotic dairy breeds, combining the adaptation to difficult environments of the indigenous breeds with the milk producing potential of the exotic breeds. But the optimum breed combination for the wide variety of smallholder conditions is generally not known and current breeding systems often fail to deliver to farmers the genotypes of cow they need. Funded by the BMGF, we have combined traditional intensive field recording methods, with rapid data capture and high density genotyping technologies to understand the diversity of genotypes that farmers use in East Africa and to determine what breed combinations work best for different types of smallholder. We are exploring whether genomic tests for breed composition can be developed and applied at sufficient low cost that they could be used routinely to support sale, purchase and breeding of smallholder cows and bulls. We are also exploring whether smart data capture, sms messaging and targeted use of genotyping and use of sexed semen can support sustainable genetic improvement and delivery systems for smallholders.
John Gibson is Professor and Director of International Development and Director of the Centre for Genetic Analysis and Applications in the School of Environmental and Rural Science at UNE. Previous appointments have included Transitional Head of School for ERS at UNE; Program Director of Genetics and Genomics at the International Livestock Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya; Professor of Genetics at the University of Guelph, Canada; and Research Scientist at the Animal Breeding Research Organisation (now the Roslin Institute), Edinburgh, Scotland. His research has covered a wide range of theoretical and highly applied problems in livestock, fish and crop genetics and genetic improvement, and in livestock systems.
Tuesday 8th August 2017
Monitoring the health of extensively managed sheep can be difficult and labour intensive, so the development of remote and automated monitoring technologies may be of use in assisting producers in the early detection of illness and disease. The first part of this study involved examining the potential for temperature sensing microchips placed in peripheral areas of the body for detecting changes in core body temperature. The second part investigates the potential for the use of infrared thermography in the detection of skin inflammation in wooled areas of sheep. The results of these two studies show that placement of microchips influences their ability to accurately reflect core temperatures, and that the presence of wool longer than 1-2mm significantly impacts on the ability of infrared thermography to detect skin inflammation.
Tuesday 25th July 2017
As animal welfare becomes an increasingly important consideration for society, we need to develop practical measures of welfare which take into account both physical and mental well-being. It can be very difficult to determine the effective or emotional state of animals and existing cognitive methods can be very time consuming and impractical in applied contexts. This study aimed to further validate and refine a cognitive method which has been pharmacologically validated as a measure of anxious states in sheep. The results of this study show the test can be refined and shortened to less than 3 minutes per sheep, allowing for faster assessment of anxious states in larger groups of animals.
Jessica is in the second year of her PhD studying the behavioural and physiological coping strategies that livestock use to deal with management induced stress.
Tuesday 25th July 2017
Can we use invisible fences to control sheep? There is increasing development in virtual fencing systems to contain and control the movement of livestock. Unlike traditional fencing that uses a physical barrier that animals can see and interact with, virtual fencing relies on animals interacting with the invisible fence through warning cues and negative stimuli. To ensure animal welfare is not compromised when using virtual fencing, animals must be able to associate a benign conditioned stimulus with an aversive stimulus. The aims of this study were to identify the minimum aversive stimulus that deters animals, and to develop a training method based on associative learning.
Danila completed a PhD investigating self-medication methods in sheep and cattle at the UNE and CSIRO. Danila currently works in animal behaviour and welfare with CSIRO Armidale, with a primary focus on sheep welfare. She is interested in the learning capabilities of livestock and how we can develop training protocols that could allow them to have control over their welfare.
Tuesday 4th July 2017
The poultry nutrition group at UNE has successfully developed equations to predict the net energy of feed ingredients based on metabolisable energy and measured chemical components. A series of metabolic experiments were conducted using closed circuit respirometer chambers to measure oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide generation and overall energy balance in both meat chickens and laying hens fasted and fed diets differing in nutrient and chemical composition. The data collected on heat production, metabolisable energy, body weight, and chemical composition of the diets was analysed using linear regression to develop equations for meat birds and layers to be applied to individual feed ingredients. New feeds were formulated using net energy and fed to birds in chambers to validate the equations. The results indicate that in addition to metabolisable energy, protein and fat are significant predictors of heat increment in poultry. The economic benefit to formulating using net energy over metabolisable energy depends on the relative price of various ingredients including fats and oils and more recently commercialised amino acids such as arginine, isoleucine and valine.
Bob Swick is a native of the USA. Prior to his current position he lived in Singapore and consulted for the American Soybean Association, Agrenco Bioenergy, Prince Agri Products and ADDCON. He received his PhD in animal nutrition from Oregon State University in 1981 and began his career at Monsanto Company working with methionine and feed preservatives. He later became Product Development Manager at Novus International. Bob has published over 250 technical papers, bulletins, reports and journal articles and holds a patent on a novel grain preservation system. His current research interests are in the area of poultry energetics, nutrient metabolism and gut health.
Tuesday 27th June 2017
RNA sequencing is a powerful tool that allows us to study the differences in gene expression and their association with different phenotypes, tissues, treatments or diseases. It provides us with a better understanding on how specific conditions impact biological processes and how abundances of different genes (transcripts) vary. This technique is based on counting the number of sequences that map to a reference genome and then the abundances of the genes in two different conditions (or tissues) are contrasted.
In beef cattle, the composition of the meat (texture, muscle fibres, etc.) changes from one muscle type to another; this is the reason why we were interested in studying the early biological triggers of muscle differentiation during development (myogenic process). Here we used Korean cattle (Hanwoo) to identify the genes and pathways that regulate these processes. A cell culture experiment using bovine muscle satellite cells from Longissimus dorsi and Semimembranosus was combined with a time-series RNA-seq analysis to measure the transcriptome expression levels during the differentiation of satellite cells (on days 0, 1, 2, 4, 7 and 14). Around 84% of the reads were mapped to the reference genome (Bos taurus UMD3.1). Several genes were differentially expressed across time and between tissues. Gene ontology analysis revealed that the main enriched terms were genes with functions necessary for regulation of cell cycle, mitosis, nuclear division, cell cycle checkpoints and DNA biosynthetic processes. The most important finding was the identification of Hoxc11, Sim2, Hoxc8, Hoxb9, Zic2, Zic4, Tbx4 and Hoxb4 genes that were differentially expressed between LD and SM across time, suggesting that they could be driving the specific characterization of each muscle.
Tuesday 20th June 2017
Shell colour is an important trait for eggs and an understanding of pigment deposition will assist potential management of egg shell colour loss. We demonstrated that nicarbazin feeding down-regulated ALAS1 and reduced protoporphyrin IX (PP IX) in both shell gland and eggshell, indicating the role of nicarbazin in inhibiting the synthesis of PP IX. Additionally, the expression levels of the genes did not show sequential upregulation in the same order of diurnal time-points (TP) during egg formation. The gene SLC25A38, responsible for transporting glycine from cytoplasm to mitochondria, and the gene ALAS1,encoding rate-limiting enzyme (delta-aminolevulinic acid synthase 1), had higher expression at 15 hr, as compared with 2, 5 and 23.5 hr postoviposition. Interestingly, ABCB6, a gene encoding an enzyme responsible for transporting coproporphyrinogen III, showed higher expression level at 2 and 5 hrs. However, the expression of CPOX that converts coproporphyrinogen III to protoporphyrinogen III, and ABCG2 that transports PP IX out from mitochondria did not alter. Nevertheless, mitochondrial count per cell did not show consistent change in response to time-points postoviposition and nicarbazin feeding. The information obtained in the study sheds light on how nicarbazin disrupts the synthesis of PP IX.
Tuesday 13th June 2017
The interest for feed efficiency has increased at least over the last two decades. Not only because is important to increase food production due to the growing human population, but also because feed efficiency is related with the feed cost of production. Providing feed to animals is a major cost input in almost any animal production system. The efficiency of converting this feed into useable animal products, commonly referred to as feed efficiency, is becoming a common breeding objective to improve profitability. In order to include feed efficiency traits in the breeding goal or breeding objective, genetic parameters are needed for accurate and unbiased prediction of breeding values, as well as to develop selection indices, and to predict selection responses. We investigate the genetic parameters of some feed efficiency traits and its genetic correlations between traits. Potential exist to reduce beef cost by selecting for low values for residual feed intake in breeding programs, and the major cattle breed societies in Australia are measuring feed efficiency traits to include them into the Australian beef recording system “Breedplan”.
Antonio Torres-Vazquez is a veterinarian in his first year of his PhD. His research interest ranges from estimation of genetic parameters to optimisation of breeding programs. Antonio has completed a Master in Science with specialization in Animal Breeding and Genetics and currently is investigating the genetic variability of feed efficiency traits in Australian Angus Cattle.
Wednesday 7th June 2017
Salt tolerant pasture species represent a valuable opportunity to intensify agricultural production in low-rainfall areas where saline land and or water (e.g. mine-site dewatering) are allocated to pastoral systems. Inherently variable in ionic composition and concentration, the response of plants to saline soils and groundwater are difficult to predict. Existing and novel approaches were applied to tropical and sub tropical pasture species to identify: mechanisms of tolerance to root-zone salinity; the individual effects of osmotic stress (OS) and osmotic stress and ion toxicity (OST) on plant growth and water use and; practical upper salinity limits for soil solution salinities. Generally, salt tolerant tropical and subtropical pasture species, including some glycophytes, should be considered for intensification of agricultural production in areas where root-zone salinity is an issue. The ability of glycophytic pasture species such as lucerne and leucaena to exclude Na+ at the root level, when root-zone Ca2+ was adequate, has potential value under root-zone salinity. However, if OST occurred, severe reductions in growth and plant water use were observed, potentially limiting glycophytes to situations where low soil solution salinities (2-5 dS/m) and adequate Ca2+ availability can be maintained. The capacity of halophytic Rhodes grass to safely accumulate ions to high concentrations in plant tissues at moderately high root-zone salinity (16 dS/m), whilst maintaining adequate plant growth and water use, meant it was the best option (of the species tested) for cultivation in tropical and subtropical areas affected by root-zone salinity.
Hayley is an agronomist and Lecturer in Tropical Agriculture at The University of Queensland. Her research interests range from the systems level of ruminant livestock production down to cellular processes, studying the physiological responses of pastures to abiotic stress.
Hayley completed her PhD at the University of Queensland, studying the effects of root-zone salinity on plant production and water use of tropical and subtropical pasture species adapted to southern Queensland. She has experience in the intensive and extensive grazing systems of northern Australia, and agricultural research in South East Asia. Hayley has worked on a variety of research and extension activities associated with feed base improvement, plant breeding and toxicology.
Tuesday 6th June 2017
Enteric methane (CH4) is produced by ruminants during the fermentation of the feed. At global level livestock emits in the atmosphere 18% of the total anthropogenic emissions. Livestock animals are rising to respond to the growing demand of food. Reduction of CH4 from livestock is possible through various strategies. Dietary strategy appears to have encouraging results on reducing CH4 without lowering the productivity of the animals. Nitrate salts and dietary oils have been among the most promising additives. Nitrate may also replace urea as a non-protein-nitrogen source in protein-deficient diets. More recently, cysteamine hydrochloride (CSH) has been shown as an effective antimethanogenic additive and may increase the productivity of animals in intensive systems. We investigated the effect of feeding nitrate, canola oil or CSH on CH4 emissions and the role of nitrate and CSH as feed additives in low-quality roughage diets.
Laura Villar is an Agricultural Engineer in her second year of her PhD. Laura is investigating the effect of feed additives on reducing methane emissions, focusing on nitrate metabolism in the rumen, using respiration chambers to measure methane production from ruminants. Laura received a scholarship from the National Institute for Agricultural Research from Argentina (INTA), where she has been involved with small ruminant research in extensive conditions in Patagonia for 10 years. After completion of her PhD, Laura plans to contribute ideas for methane mitigation strategies by using feed additives in Argentina.
Tuesday 23rd May 2017
Even under the best management practices, stressful events can occur during an animal's life including pregnancy. Previous studies in humans and mammals have shown that certain stressful situations can impact negatively the foetus brain development which could result in impaired behaviour and cognitive abilities in the neonates. Early behaviours are primordial for newborn lambs to establish a bond with their dam as well as follow their dam and so for survival. We have investigated the effects of different mild stressors at different stages of pregnancy on lamb neonatal behaviour. We also compared these effects with those of the injections of stress hormone noradrenaline as an attempt to shed some light on the mechanisms behind the effects observed.
Tuesday 16th May 2017
Traditional genetic improvement relies on the use of pedigree information and phenotypes of each animal to estimate its breeding values. This has led to substantial genetic gains in most livestock species, especially for the traits that are easy to measure. However, the process is often inefficient for expensive or difficult to measure traits such as parasite resistance. Genomic selection offers an alternative to conventional breeding programs and can increase the rate of genetic gain by using genomic information to predict the breeding values of selection animals. This study aimed to compare the accuracy of genomic prediction based on different SNP panel densities, with and without including genetic markers from quantitative trait loci (QTL) regions. The results show that accuracy of prediction can be improved by including QTL information explicitly in the prediction models.
Tuesday 9th May 2017
The use of antibiotics as growth promoters in animal feed began in the 1940s, with two scientific papers being widely cited as the first scientific papers to report a growth-promoting effect of feeding antibiotics. Subsequently, antibiotics quickly made in-roads into the poultry industry. The use of antibiotics in the light of their potential for the development of antibiotic resistance in bacteria was later investigated. It is suggested that sub-therapeutic levels of antibiotics in the diet of farm animals may pose certain hazards to humans and animal health. In particular, sustained feeding of antibiotics causes antibiotic resistance of enteric bacteria in the animal gut. Because of this and observation of resistance of disease causing bacteria in hospitals routine use of antibiotics for growth promotion have been banned in the EU. Animal nutritionists all over the world have been called to find non-antibiotic growth promotants as alternatives to antibiotics. Much research has been conducted in this regard, especially for potential infections that might occur as a result of feeding strategies such as the inclusion of poorly digested by-products such as meat and bone meal. Non-starch polysaccharides from wheat and barley have also been known to cause enteric problems in poultry diets. While NSPase enzymes are widely used in poultry feed there is paucity of information whether commercial enzymes could act to promote growth. An ongoing investigation is looking at the possibility of eliminating necrotic enteritis, a bacterial disease, in broilers fed diets with high levels of protein by-product (meat and bone meal) using phytase (a commercial enzyme). This seminar will focus on a brief history of antibiotics, development of resistance in bacteria and how exogenous feed enzymes might help reduce subclinical bacterial diseases in poultry.
The chicken meat industry is growing rapidly due to its affordability as an animal protein source and low production costs. Current broiler feed protein levels are correlated with high water consumption and wet litter, resulting in health and welfare issues. Domestic protein meals used in poultry feed can be unreliable or hold ant-nutritive factors causing a dependence on imported soybean meal, adding extra costs to feed formulations. Amino acid supplements are a viable option in fortifying low protein diets by meeting nutritional requirements of growing meat chickens that are lost when reducing dietary protein.
To maintain a cost-effective practice only a few amino acid supplements are used in the Australian meat chicken industry, however with a trend towards more amino acid supplements becoming affordable, research has been undertaken to assess the feasibility of their use on meat chicken performance. The implementation of low protein diets will reduce industry dependence on protein meals and the adverse health and welfare effects of higher protein diets. Recently at UNE, a study was completed investigating the effects of low protein diets fortified with essential and nonessential amino acids on meat chicken performance and water intake.
With the growing population and evolving dietary habits, meeting the world’s growing demand for high quality animal protein is becoming a global societal challenge. The conventional solution to compensate for protein deficiencies in poultry diet is the ‘more of the same’ approach, to add more plant based protein to the feed-when the real issue is the amino acid balance. As conventional feed ingredients for animal production are deficient in one of the essential amino acids, targeted supplementation of amino acid ensures healthy, balanced nutrition for optimum growth. Lowering the plant based protein requirements not only reduces the animal producers total feed cost but also helps conserve crop resources. The reduction in plant based protein intake also reduces the amount of manure as well as effluents that leads to eutrophication. Amino acids supplemented poultry diets thus contribute to more efficient animal production, reduce burden on the environment and a deliver healthier high quality protein for human consumption.
Girish Channarayapatna completed his PhD in 2009 from University of Guelph, Animal and Poultry Science Department, Canada. His main research focus during PhD was on mycotoxicoses in poultry. He joined Evonik in March 2010 as the Technical Sales Manager for Asia South region. Since 2014 he is heading the Technical Service Group for Evonik Animal Nutrition in Asia South.
Thursday 8th December 2016
The commercial poultry industry relies on a limited number of animal and vegetable protein ingredients. In general, animal protein sources have a higher nutritive value than vegetable sources but there are different constraints to the use of both sets of ingredients. Plant vegetable protein sources are poorer in nutritive value than animal protein, and their former may also contain anti-nutritive factors that limit the digestion of nutrients or directly affect animal health.
Soybean meal (SBM) is the premier plant protein used by the poultry industry around the world. The price of soybean meal do fluctuate but is generally high, particularly in importing countries. There are other vegetable protein sources of local importance around the world, for example, peanut, cottonseed, sesame seed and sunflower seed, some of these alternative sources are close to SBM and CM in nutritive value but they are either limited in supply or contain factors that inhibit productivity. Cottonseed meal (CSM) for example, is high in fibre and contains gossypol while sunflower seed meal (SFM) has a high level of fibre.
Tuesday 29th November 2016
Dietary feed ingredients represent 65-75% of total production cost while energy represents approximately 50% of the total diet cost. Nutrients, when assimilated yield energy that is vital to every function in the body. The total amount of feed energy is gross energy. By subtracting the energy portion eliminated in urine and faeces metabolizable energy (ME) can be calculated and used for feed formulation. Globally, most if not all poultry feeds are formulated using the ME system. Metabolism of feed in the body leads to heat production. Part of this is used to keep the body warm and the rest is heat increment or wasted energy. The ME system doesn’t consider heat increment. Formulating feed on a net energy system would take heat increment into account and thus may be more precise than the ME system. In this project, after establishing the equation for NE prediction an experiment was conducted to compare the feed energy evaluating systems on layer performance and economics.
Tuesday 7th November 2016.
Free- range egg production is getting popular in Australia as people are getting more concerned about awareness of hen welfare. This pressure encouraged Australian egg producers to house more free-range laying hens.
In free-range egg productions, hens are allowed to roam within a shed, and access a range. Subsequently, hens have the ability to express their natural behaviour. However, there are several challenges to be faced when housing free-range layers. For example, one of the most prevalent gastrointestinal parasite is Ascaridia galli. This parasite has been reported to decrease hen production and suspected to reduce egg quality. There is a lack of research on the impact of infection intensity on egg quality and a critical threshold that can be accepted. We investigated the impact of different infection levels with A.galli on hen performance (feed intake, body weight, egg weight, egg production) and egg quality parameters in free-range laying hens.
Tuesday 1st November 2016.
The ban and voluntary removal of in-feed antibiotics in the poultry industry throughout the world have led to the emergence of wet litter and enteric disorders. This results in poor performance of the birds thus reduced productivity and profit for the industry. To tackle such problems, alternative strategies have been sought which include the modulation of gut microflora, augmentation of immune response and control of pathogens through management, nutritional strategies and/or feed additives. These measures have shown to improve the health and digestive efficiency and thus improve growth performance of broiler chickens.
One of those strategies is incorporating structural components of feed, such as coarse fiber or ingredient in the diet. It is well documented that feeding birds with structural components of feed, such as coarse fiber or ingredient, modulate the gastrointestinal tract specially increasing the gizzard size. Large and well-developed gizzard can increase its grinding activity, leading to pancreatic enzyme secretion through increased release of cholecystokinin from pancreas, increased proteolysis by pepsin, trypsin and other endogenous proteases in the small intestine and improved GIT motility. It has been hypothesised that the feeding birds with fibre improve nutrient digestibility, growth performance, gut health, litter quality and bird welfare via enhanced GIT tract function, greater digesta transit time and improve faecal quality.
Our study aimed to investigate the effect of different sources of fibres along with different feed particle sizes on gizzard development, growth performance, nutrient digestibility, bird welfare and litter quality. The talk will present our findings which show the potential to use course ingredients and fibre to improve gut health, litter quality and growth performance of birds.
The Meat Standards Australia (MSA) beef grading model predicts the eating quality outcome of different cuts by cooking method from commercial inputs of on-farm, carcass traits and processing inputs. Based on a body of Australian research in the mid-2000’s it was demonstrated that Hormonal Growth Promotants (HGPs) have undoubtedly a negative impact on beef eating quality over and above an effect on maturity (ossification) and fat content, in the order of three to six palatability points (MQ4). Subsequently, an adjustment of approximately four to five MSA index points is applied to any carcase that is presented for grading whereby the animal was treated with a HGP.
Since the introduction of the HGP adjustment, some industry stakeholders argued that the research conducted to establish the magnitude of the HGP adjustment did not allow for the hypothesised variable effects of different HGPs used in Australia. This was because, in the majority of the studies conducted, animals received multiple implants and/or were finished with a combination trenbolone acetate and oestradiol HGP implant. This made individual implant contribution to eating quality effects, difficult to distinguish, and therefore, to protect the consumer, the MSA pathways committee decided on one collective HGP adjustment.
This seminar will present findings from a trial which compared the meat from steers finished in a feedlot with three HGP treatment groups; Control (no implant), oestradiol only implant (21.1 mg oestradiol-17ß) or combination oestradiol and trenbolone acetate implant (200mg trenbolone acetate and 20mg oestradiol). Samples from these animals were tasted by untrained consumers for tenderness, juiciness, flavour and overall liking as a measurement of eating quality. Further laboratory meat quality assessments were conducted as supporting data. Results indicate these HGP implants have different impacts on eating quality measurements.
Ancestors of domesticated fowl used today for meat and egg production, such as chicken, turkeys, ducks, amongst others, share an obvious commonality - their natural habitat. In the jungle, the presence of a number of predators and the necessity to eat and to survive in spite of them, have been pivotal for the development of some of the domestic fowl’s characteristics. According to zoology studies performed from as early as 1928, primitive eating habits and behaviours of the red jungle fowl would protect these birds from harsh conditions in the jungle. As observed by Baker and Baker (1928) in India, “During the heat of the day they [red jungle fowl birds] sleep in the forest in some tree or clump of bamboos but from dawn to about 9 am and again from 3 or 4 pm until dusk they may be seen wandering about in the crops.”
Increasing demands of a growing, wealthier and fast-paced worldwide population make dependency on seed-eating birds, hiding and sleeping on treetops throughout most of the day, highly unrealistic. As such, in spite of innately exhibiting an intermittent feeding behaviour, broiler chickens have been reared in commercial operations throughout the past decades on either continuous or near continuous illumination (23 hours of light and 1 hour or dark) or with daily, human-like schedules (16 to 18 hours of light and 6 to 8 hours of dark) and fed ad libitum, and continue being so in most operations, in the certainty that this practice maximizes feed intake and growth rate (Lewis & Gous, 2007).
Roles of certain parts of the digestive tract of chickens seem to have been lost with the evolution of time and commercial practices. Gizzards no longer serve their grinding purposes, having become more like transit organs and crops have lost their function with the abandonment of discontinuous feeding systems. Certainly, the importance of the crop in digestion will presumably be much affected by the proportion of feed that enters the crop and the amount of time it spends there.
What if regaining crop and gizzard functionality, by increasing particle size, reintroducing scheduled feeding and increasing dark periods, would enhance endogenous and exogenous enzyme activity, thus leading to better nutrient digestibility, less undigested feed in the caecum, less gut inflammation and therefore better performance and better animal health?
Arabinoxylan is a non-starch polysaccharide, and it is a common substrate in most xylans forming plant cell wall structure of cereal grains. The presence of arabinoxylans has been proven to implement various adverse effect in monogastric animals, for example, occurrence of insufficient digestion and unwanted fermentation. The poultry diets are pressed from cereal grains, including viscous grains, such as wheat, barley, rye and oats, which have a considerable amount of soluble non-starch polysaccharides. Therefore, xylanase products were widely used in the poultry production to i) partially depolymerise non-starch polysaccharides in the feed ingredient and ii) increase the nutritive value of grains by breakdown cell walls to release encapsulated nutrients. In spite of that, the excess amount of non-starch polysaccharides can destabilise normal gut microflora, thereby making intestinal environment vulnerable to the occurrence of necrotic enteritis.
Recent studies showed that arabinoxylan-oligosaccharides (AXOS), a depolymerisation of arabinoxylans by xylanase, could positively cultivate composition and activity of bacterial colonies in the gastrointestinal tract by selectively fermenting normal gut commensals. This particular finding may be an approach to strengthen the resilience of broilers against gastrointestinal pathogens and improve the nutrient utilisation from the feed ingredient.
The seminar will present findings from two experiments conducted at the UNE regarding the effect of xylanase inclusion as well as the supplementation of arabinoxylan and AXOS to broiler growth performance under necrotic enteritis challenge stress. Also, the response of gut viscosity and intestinal pH by arabinoxylans and AXOS supplementation will be discussed.
Turkey haemorrhagic enteritis (HE) is caused by a group II avian adenovirus known as Haemorrhagic Enteritis virus (HEV). HE is an acute disease of young growing turkeys with a sudden onset of depression, bloody droppings and a potentially high death rate. HE virus is present in Australia and outbreaks in 7-8 week old broilers with mortality of 0.5-1% over a week. It is also considered to be a historical cause of loss of illness, production and mortality in commercial turkey operations typically causing splenomegaly, mortality and increased E. coli infections at around 8-12 weeks of age.
Similar virus causes marble spleen disease in pheasants and avian adenovirus splenomegaly (AAS) in chickens. The disease is controlled by live virus vaccination worldwide but not Australia although a relatively avirulent strain HEV086 was isolated 30 years ago. The vaccine is produced from lymphoblastoid cell line MDTC-RP19 that is not available in Australia. It’s not possible to import this cell line to produce vaccine due to quarantine restriction. In addition, Australia does not have SPF turkey to produce the HEV vaccine but has SPF chicken and SPF eggs. The recent studies at University of New England examined to grow the HEV virus in SPF chickens and eggs. The qPCR results showed that best chicken produce 10,000-130,00 doses of vaccine from liver and spleen combined. Moreover, virus grows in SPF eggs with low recovery dose.
Most non-ruminant animal nutritionists would be familiar with the use of commercial soybean meal (SBM) in diets for poultry and pigs. Raw soybean meal (RSBM) is less commonly used due to high levels of anti-nutritive factors (ANF), particularly trypsin inhibitors (TI). The development of new highly potent microbial enzyme products offers an opportunity for the use of RSBM in areas where facilities for processing SBM are lacking.
In recent studies completed at the University of New England, PhD Student, Mammo Erdaw, examined the potential benefits of feeding RSBM in diets when supplemented with high-potency microbial enzymes.
The results showed that moderate dry- and wet-heating do not substantially reduce the levels of TI in RSBM, and diets were not substantially improved when cold- or steam-pelleted. Replacing SBM with RSBM at up to 25 % reduced body growth, due mainly to a reduction in feed intake and nutrient digestibility. The ingredient also increased endogenous losses of protein and amino acids, but did not affect the health of birds or the rearing environment. The negative effects of RSBM were reduced through dietary supplementation with microbial phytase and protease. A preliminary cost-benefit analysis also showed that RSBM could save feeding costs when it replaced SBM. Further studies are underway to directly assess the behaviour of proteins in RSBM, especially in the presence of the test protease.
Tuesday, 20th September 2016.
Birth type (BT) and rearing type (RT) influence lamb growth and development from zygote to birth (for BT) and from birth to adult (for BT and RT). BT and RT also constitute an environment that influence the expression of early growth of Merino lambs and its influence might continue along trajectory of their lives. There is genetic variation in growth rates of animals and this variation may change over the growth path of animals, with different genes being expressed at different times during development.
This can be explored at a quantitative genetic level by estimating the genetic correlation between growth traits measured at different ages. Random regression models (RRM) have been used to analyse and describe the genetic variation over the growth trajectory of cattle, pig and sheep whereas this models have also been used to describe variation in test day yield along the lactation curve. Genotype by birth or rearing type interaction can be identified when breeding values for growth expressed in singles rank differently than breeding values expressed in twins.
This study explores the genetic model underlying the growth path singles and twins and how the pre- and post-natal environment affects the expression of genetic merit for different parts of the growth curve.
Tuesday, 13th September 2016.
Rapeseed production, including canola varieties, ranks second among oilseed crops worldwide. Canola seed production in Australia has grown from 1.9 to 3.6 million metric tons over the past 5 years. Canola meal (CM) is a co-product of the canola seed-crushing industry and is widely used as a secondary protein source along with soybean meal (SBM) in broiler diets. It has a good balance of essential amino acids and is higher in methionine and cysteine on a protein basis than SBM. However, CM energy and digestibility of amino acids is typically lower than SBM. Anti-nutritional factors such as glucosinolate and sinapine may also restrict its use to less than full replacement of SBM in poultry diets. The fibre components of CM have been shown to be negatively correlated to energy digestibility of the meal.
The outlined project has examined variation in feeding value of experimentally produced and commercial sources of Australian canola meals. The project has endeavoured to develop commercial ties with the crushing industry to evaluate opportunities for product improvement. Commercially acceptable methods to enhance nutritional value of CM have been examined. These include modifications of processing parameters, the use of newly developed commercially available enzymes and the possibility of using extra supplemental amino acids in CM-based diets for broiler chickens.
Tuesday, 30th August 2016.
Resilience is the ability of an animal to cope with short-term challenges and return to its pre-challenge state. Strategies aiming to identify and select resilient animals that can better cope with our production systems are expected to improve both the productivity and welfare of our livestock. This thesis aims to better understand the resilience phenotype in livestock and identify potential measures of resilience which are practical and applicable on farm. The first experiment conducted as part of this thesis aimed to better understand the relationships between the different components of resilience in sheep.
Tuesday, 21st June 2016.
Infectious bursal disease is first reported in 1957 in Gumboro area, Delaware, USA and disease is caused by IBDV. Since then IBDV was distributed rapidly throughout the world. The current reach study was designed to test following broad objectives:
- Define differences between Australian classical and variant strains,
- Determine independent effects of age resistance and presence of maternal antibodies,
- Detection of IBDV vRNA in environmental samples,
- Test transmission of IBDV by contaminated dust,
- Determine temperature-time combinations required to inactivate IBDV in heaped litter.
Tuesday, 14th June 2016.
Cereal grains typically constitute the largest proportion of practical diets for poultry. Wheat is the predominant cereal grain used by the poultry industry in Australia and Europe. Wheat, like most temperate cereal grains, contains high levels of insoluble non-starch polysaccharides (NSP), in addition to phytic acid, the main reservoir of phosphorus in grains. Diets for meat chickens are routinely supplemented with microbial enzymes targeting NSP and phytic acid, and new enzyme products are continuously being produced and tested for introduction into the market. This presentation will outline a project that was developed to evaluate the response of poultry on diets containing wheat, maize or sorghum. Preliminary results that have been obtained from the trials on wheat will be presented.
Tuesday, 31st May 2016.
Mitochondrial quantification was performed in the shell gland of laying hens treated with nicarbazin using a quantitative PCR assay. Furthermore, expression of seven genes associated with protoporphyrin IX (PP IX) synthesis and/or deposition was examined in order to assess whether the treatments can lead to differential expression of the genes. The results showed that the mitochondrial concentrations per cell were significantly lower in the nicarbazin-fed group at 15 hr post-oviposition time. In the control group, the expression of ALAS1, FECH and SLC25A38 were significantly different at different stages post-oviposition. In the nicarbazin group, the expressions of all genes except CPOX were significantly different at different stages of post-oviposition. Comparing the effect of drug on the expression stabilities of the genes, ALAS1 was significantly down regulated in the nicarbazin fed groups. The PP IX content per gram of shell gland tissue was significantly lower (P<0.05) in the nicarbazin-fed birds compared with the control group. The amount of PP IX in whole eggshell decreased with day effect in the nicarbazin group, in a linear pattern, but it remained constant in the control group. However, egg weight and shell thickness were not significantly different between the control and nicarbazin-fed groups. It can be concluded that the mitochondrial concentrations in the shell gland were altered by nicarbazin only at 15 hr post oviposition, and the expression of some genes associated with PP IX synthesis and/or deposition were affected by post-oviposition time. The expression level of ALAS1 gene was significantly down regulated in the nicarbazin-fed groups that resulted in lower production of PP IX appeared in the eggshells.
Tuesday, 24th May 2016.
Hanwoo cattle are known for their high meat quality, particularly their high marbling (intramuscular fat) ability compared to most other breeds. Meat flavor and tenderness are largely determined by intramuscular fat composition, muscle fiber characteristics and connective tissue structures. All of these factors differ largely between muscle types but it is not well known how this differentiation occurs and what are the genes and pathways that regulate the process. To better understand the myogenic processes involved in differentiation of Hanwoo muscle types we performed a time-series RNA-seq experiment to measure transcriptome expression levels during the development of muscle satellite cells (MSC) in Longissimus dorsi (LD) and Semimembranosus (SM).
Free-range systems are perceived to improve hen welfare through providing outdoor access but not all hens choose to use the range. The outdoor range is typically more spatially complex than indoor environments, thus outdoor-preferring hens might have improved cognitive abilities compared to indoor-preferring hens during cognitive tests. Indoor-preferring and Outdoor-preferring hens were assessed with a novel detour-reaching task and in a reverse T-maze. Indoor hens showed slower latencies to learn indicating poorer cognitive abilities compared to Outdoor hens but differences may be modulated by reducing fear through habituation to novel environments.
Tuesday, 5th April 2016.
New technologies are presenting opportunities for remote sensing of core body temperature in animals. If a protocol can be established, then these technologies can be used to monitor fever and inflammation in livestock in the paddock. To test for suitable implant sites, eleven crossbred ewes were implanted with temperature sensing microchips positioned in the neck muscle and tail regions, sites potentially suitable for remote temperature monitoring. Temperature measurements were taken at regular intervals from the microchips and from vaginal (core) temperature using iButton and thermocouple sensors. Temperature change was recorded over baseline and treatment periods where sheep were exposed to challenges designed to increase (i.v. lipopolysaccharide) and decrease (cold water gavage tube) core temperature. Results were analysed and compared between traditional temperature measurement methods and microchips for ability to reflect core temperature and changes in core temperature.
Tuesday, 15th March 2016.
Gastrointestinal parasites are one of the most important health problems affecting sheep. Breeding sheep for enhanced resistance has been suggested as a viable method of parasite control, and the identification of genes for parasite resistance would greatly accelerate the genetic improvement. The aim of the study was to identify genomic regions underlying variation in parasite resistance in a large population of Australian sheep, using Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and regional heritability mapping (RHM) approaches.
Tuesday ,15th March 2016.
With the availability of the Affymetrix 90K buffalo SNP Chip, this thesis will explore the use genomic data in a dairy buffalo breeding program. I will first look at the structure of the genetic diversity of buffalo populations. I will then identify SNPs and candidate genes associated with milk traits using genome-wide association study. Subsequently, I will test the accuracy of genomic prediction for milk traits. Finally, I will look into the implementation and optimisation of a dairy buffalo breeding program using genomic selection.
Monday, 7th March 2016.
Dr Jean Noblet worked at INRA (for "Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique") in France from 1977, most recently as Director of Research. He is located near Rennes (Brittany). He has "Ingénieur Agronome" and PhD degrees from the National Institute of Agronomy in Paris and the University of Paris. In 2000, he received the "Non-ruminant Nutrition Award" of the American Society of Animal Science. His research has concerned energy and protein nutrition of swine and, more recently, of poultry and calves with achievements in calorimetry methods, evaluation of energy content (net energy concept, for instance) of pig feeds, factorial quantification and modelling of energy requirements in pigs, calves or poultry and thermoregulation of pigs. He was the Editor-in-Chief of Animal journal from 2012 to 2014. He has authored or co-authored about 200 reviewed papers or book chapters, about 400 communications and 2 software applications on pig production: InraPorc and EvaPig. He retired from INRA at the start of 2016.
Bruno will speak about a collaboration initiative between Australian and New Zealand institutions, as well as private organisations, interested in quantifying production and economic benefits of recording and selection in commercially managed sheep flocks of multi-tiered breeding schemes.
Tuesday 9th February, 2016.
Free-range egg production is rapidly growing in Australia with an estimated retail value market share of 48 %. Laying hens exposed to pasture range may experience reduced performance, poor enteric health and increased mortality. In addition, egg quality can also be affected, indicated by the increased number of damaged and misplaced eggs as well as decreased egg shell quality. These effects may be related to excessive fiber digestion and reduced nutrient uptake. The addition of multi-enzymes or organic acids to free-range layer diets may improve the digestion of nutrients, thus increasing performance, gut health and egg quality. We conducted a study to investigate the effect of range types and feed additives on performance and egg quality and performance of ranging laying hens.
Tuesday 2nd February, 2016.
Supplementing ruminants with dietary nitrate reduces methane emissions, but can expose animals to nitrite toxicity risks. This study investigated if adaptation to dietary nitrate and supplementation of fermentable energy sources (glucose or glycerol) reduce accumulation of nitrite in vitro. There was no effect of additional energy sources on nitrite accumulation, adaptation of rumen fluid donors to dietary nitrate even increased accumulation of nitrite. In vivo verification is needed to assess the role of adapting ruminants to nitrate supplementation on risks of nitrite toxicity.
Lamb survival is a welfare issue as well as a considerable economic loss. Shearing during pregnancy can improve lambs birthweight which is correlated to their survival. Does shearing impacts other lamb vigour traits? Other husbandry procedures can put ewes under pressure. What are the effects of stress during the pregnancy on lamb vigour traits? This project studies the effects of different stressors at different stages of pregnancy on lamb vigour traits such as performance traits (birthweight and frame measurements), latency to display some behaviours, and thermoregulatory traits.
Necrotic enteritis (NE) caused by Clostridium perfringens is one of the most economic important diseases in areas of the world where antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) have been banned. After experiencing an increase in the incidence of NE in Europe after banning routine use of AGP, it was apparent that an opportunity existed to find safe replacement additives. Mannan-oligosaccharides (MOS) derived from yeast cell walls have been shown to be potential AGP replacements. These prebiotics control pathogen invasion through competitive exclusion and modulation of the immune system. This study was be conducted to examine if an advanced MOS product, Actigen® might alter immune response, major gut bacterial groups or hindgut metabolites and may further explain its protective mode of action. It was hypothesized that the cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1) might increase in challenged birds due to inflammatory response and that IL-10 might increase in challenged birds given Actigen® as this cytokine is involved with immune regulation in the intestine. The effect of challenge and additives on gut microflora and short chain fatty acids (SCFA) was also examined.
Wednesday 28th October, 2015.
In this study, data from 2008 to 2014 from a poultry enterprise in Fiji was analysed to investigate the patterns of occurrence, impact on performance and risk factors associated with Inclusion Body Hepatitis (IBH) disease outbreak caused by Fowl Adenovirus serotype 8 (FAdV-8). The disease pattern statistical analysis of risk factors is discussed in detail in this paper.
Tuesday 20th October, 2015.
An interesting aspect of drench resistance is that as resistance develops, a large and unexplained variation in drench efficacy exists among animals in the same treatment group. This project was performed to determine if these differences in drench efficacy are associated with the way in which individual sheep metabolise drenches. The purpose of this experiment was to determine that there will be a broad range in blood plasma FBZ concentrations in response to an industry standard dosage of anthelmintic and that this will be positively correlated to the drench efficacy within sheep to the FBZ treatment.
Cara Metcalf is a fourth-year Agricultural Science student at the University of Queensland. She has been conducting her final year internship at UNE with Associate Professor Lewis Kahn.
Tuesday 15 September, 2015.
Brendan presented the findings of detailed epidemiological investigations of farm cases of an acute paralysis syndrome that has been observed in Australian broiler chicken flocks since 2010.
Tuesday 8 September, 2015.
Professor Roberts will give an overview of the current and recent research in egg production being conducted at the University of New England.
Tuesday 11 August, 2015.
The use of guardian animals as a form of wild dog and fox management is becoming increasingly popular in Australia, however there seems to be a lack of knowledge in regards to the use of alpacas. This seminar will outline my aims and the methods I will use to gain a better understanding of how guardian alpacas work and the behavioural responses of the sheep they are guarding. This project aims to provide knowledge to producers on how to utilise these guard animals in their flock management.
Thursday 6th August, 2015.
Parasitism from gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) is one of the most costly endemic sheep diseases in Australia with majority of the cost attributed to production loss. To counteract the effects of GIN, sheep producers are encouraged to adopt integrated GIN control programs, including a greater emphasis on selecting rams with negative Australian Sheep Breeding Value for worm egg count. The acquisition phase of immunity to GIN is costly and has been associated with reduced voluntary feed intake and inefficiencies in nutrient utilisation. The hypothesis tested in this experiment was that T. colubriformis infection would reduce growth rates of grazing meat-breed lambs; however production loss would be reduced by suppression of the host immune response.
Distress vocalisation features including latency, vocalisation rate, fundamental frequency and other acoustic parameters are commonly recognised to reflect neurobehavioral integrity in both the human and rodent neonate. Application of methods used to elicit and analyse distress vocalisations in these species were used to assess acoustic parameters of neonate lambs and associated impact on maternal-infant behaviour. This research has important implications in assessment of neurodevelopmental deficit and understanding failed maternal-young interactions in ungulate and other mammalian species.
Smallholder beef cattle production in East Java is typically predicated upon maximising profit by minimising inputs. It appears that East Java is approaching carrying capacity for cattle grown on low quality feeds produced in the immediate vicinity of individual farms. Fortunately, Indonesia produces significant quantities of crop by-products which can be purchased and used as high-quality cattle feeds. Initial analysis shows that even with the additional investment required to purchase feeds, farm production and profits can be improved by feeding these by-products. However, farmer access to credit for purchasing these feeds remains a barrier to adoption.
Clostridium perfringens induced necrotic enteritis is an economically catastrophic disease in poultry production by causing suppressed growth increased flock mortality and impaired welfare. Contaminated poultry products may also bring potential negative implication for human consumption. Antibiotics are, by far, the only practical approach for maintaining the health of the birds. However, various alternatives to antibiotics have appeared promising in the use for food-producing animals since the antibiotics are phasing out from animal feed worldwide due to the emergence of the antibiotic-resistant bacterium. Early access to specific nutrients or additives may mount a natural defence to broiler gut development against necrotic enteritis.